2.6 Islam

0 Contents 2 Background 2.6 Islam

Albanian Muslim Nazi 1939-44

1915-23 Armenian Genocide And More

The German Nazi Party that existed from 1920–1945.

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Are Muslims permitted to lie? Koran Sura 9:2-5

1 Assyrian Genocide 
2 Young Turks and the Armenian Genocide   
3 Armenian Genocide
4 More then 1720 names from all German officers,  who served in the Ottoman/Turkish Army
5 A Pile Of Murdered Armenians Made Naked Killed And Piled
6 Armenian resistance during the Armenian Genocide
7 The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks, 1914-1923
9 Did the Armenian Genocide Inspire Hitler? -Turkey, Past and Future


Assyrian Genocide                                                          Greek Genocide      

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Published on May 16, 2012

This genocide was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War by the Young Turks. The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920. This genocide is part of the same policy of extermination aimed against Armenians and Pontic Greeks.

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Published on Jun 7, 2013

This is a 20 minute documentary produced in 2012 as part of a radio documentary project. The pictures were added later. Special thanks to the group Meyhane for allowing the use of some of their music and narrators for their help. The photos were used as fair use.



Read here about True (Koranic) Muslims attacking Worldly (non-Koranic) Muslims. 

Muslims need to see that they are victims of a theocratic murdering cult!

On February 16, 2012, Judge Nancy Edmunds of Federal District Court in Detroit sentenced Abdulmutallab to four consecutive life sentences plus 50 years.[11][144][145] He shouted, “Allahu akbar” five times during his sentencing, and said that Muslims were “proud to kill in the name of God, and that is what God told us to do in the Quran.”[146]

Koran (non-abrogated) Sura 9 The Immunity

 (Detail with References see 2-6-7-7 Sura 9 )

.1 (This is a declaration of) immunity by Allah and His Apostle towards those of the idolaters with whom you made an agreement.
.2 So go about in the land for four months and know that you cannot weaken Allah and that Allah will bring disgrace to the unbelievers.
.3 And an announcement from Allah and His Apostle to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah and His Apostle are free from liability to the idolaters; therefore if you repent, it will be better for you, and if you turn back, then know that you will not weaken Allah; and announce painful punishment to those who disbelieve.
.4 Except those of the idolaters with whom you made an agreement, then they have not failed you in anything and have not backed up any one against you, so fulfill their agreement to the end of their term; surely Allah loves those who are careful (of their duty).
.5 So when the sacred months have passed away,* then slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate (extortion), leave their way free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

* {The three successive forbidden months mentioned by Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are Dhu al-Qi'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, months 11, 12, and 1. The single forbidden month is Rajab, month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar, although whether they maintained their "forbidden" status after the conquest of Mecca has been disputed among Islamic scholars.}

Are Muslims permitted to lie?

Guide to Understanding Islam

What does the
Religion of Peace
Teach About...

Lying (Taqiyya and Kitman)


Are Muslims permitted to lie?

Summary Answer:

Muslim scholars teach that Muslims should generally be truthful to each other, unless the purpose of lying is to "smooth over differences."

There are two forms of lying to non-believers that are permitted under certain circumstances, taqiyya and kitman.  These circumstances are typically those that advance the cause Islam - in some cases by gaining the trust of non-believers in order to draw out their vulnerability and defeat them. 

The Qur'an:

Qur'an (16:106) - Establishes that there are circumstances that can "compel" a Muslim to tell a lie.

Qur'an (3:28) - This verse tells Muslims not to take those outside the faith as friends, unless it is to "guard themselves." 

Qur'an (9:3) - "...Allah and His Messenger are free from liability to the idolaters..."  The dissolution of oaths with the pagans who remained at Mecca following its capture.  They did nothing wrong, but were evicted anyway.

Qur'an (40:28) - A man is introduced as a believer, but one who must "hide his faith" among those who are not believers.

Qur'an (2:225) - "Allah will not call you to account for thoughtlessness in your oaths, but for the intention in your hearts"  The context of this remark is marriage, which explains why Sharia allows spouses to lie to each other for the greater good.

Qur'an (66:2) - "Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths"

Qur'an (3:54) - "And they (the disbelievers) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them): and Allah is the best of schemers."  The Arabic word used here for scheme (or plot) is makara, which literally means deceit.  If Allah is deceitful toward unbelievers, then there is little basis for denying that Muslims are allowed to do the same. (See also 8:30 and 10:21)

Taken collectively these verses are interpreted to mean that there are circumstances when a Muslim may be "compelled" to deceive others for a greater purpose.

From the Hadith:

 Bukhari (52:269) - "The Prophet said, 'War is deceit.'"  The context of this is thought to be the murder of Usayr ibn Zarim and his thirty unarmed men by Muhammad's men after he "guaranteed" them safe passage (see Additional Notes below).

 Bukhari (49:857) - "He who makes peace between the people by inventing good information or saying good things, is not a liar."  Lying is permitted when the end justifies the means.

 Bukhari (84:64-65) - Speaking from a position of power at the time, Ali confirms that lying is permissible in order to deceive an "enemy."

 Muslim (32:6303) - "...he did not hear that exemption was granted in anything what the people speak as lie but in three cases: in battle, for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife, and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband (in a twisted form in order to bring reconciliation between them)."

 Bukhari (50:369) - Recounts the murder of a poet, Ka'b bin al-Ashraf, at Muhammad's insistence.  The men who volunteered for the assassination used dishonesty to gain Ka'b's trust, pretending that they had turned against Muhammad.  This drew the victim out of his fortress, whereupon he was brutally slaughtered despite putting up a ferocious struggle for his life.

 From Islamic Law:

Reliance of the Traveler (p. 746 - 8.2) -  "Speaking is a means to achieve objectives. If a praiseworthy aim is attainable through both telling the truth and lying, it is unlawful to accomplish through lying because there is no need for it.  When it is possible to achieve such an aim by lying but not by telling the truth, it is permissible to lie if attaining the goal is permissible (N:i.e. when the purpose of lying is to circumvent someone who is preventing one from doing something permissible), and obligatory to lie if the goal is obligatory... it is religiously precautionary in all cases to employ words that give a misleading impression...

"One should compare the bad consequences entailed by lying to those entailed by telling the truth, and if the consequences of telling the truth are more damaging, one is entitled to lie.

Additional Notes:

 Muslims are allowed to lie to unbelievers in order to defeat them.  The two forms are 

Taqiyya - Saying something that isn't true.

Kitman - Lying by omission.  An example would be when Muslim apologists quote only a fragment of verse 5:32 (that if anyone kills "it shall be as if he had killed all mankind") while neglecting to mention that the rest of the verse (and the next) mandate murder in undefined cases of "corruption" and "mischief."

Though not called Taqiyya by name, Muhammad clearly used deception when he signed a 10-year treaty with the Meccans that allowed him access to their city while he secretly prepared his own forces for a takeover.  The unsuspecting residents were conquered in easy fashion after he broke the treaty two years later, and some of the people in the city who had trusted him at his word were executed.

Another example of lying is when Muhammad used deception to trick his personal enemies into letting down their guard and exposing themselves to slaughter by pretending to seek peace.  This happened in the case of Ka'b bin al-Ashraf (as previously noted) and again later against Usayr ibn Zarim, a surviving leader of the Banu Nadir tribe, which had been evicted from their home in Medina by the Muslims.

At the time, Usayr ibn Zarim was attempting to gather an armed force against the Muslims from among a tribe allied with the Quraish (against which Muhammad had already declared war).  Muhammad's "emissaries" went to ibn Zarim and persuaded him to leave his safe haven on the pretext of meeting with the prophet of Islam in Medina to discuss peace.  Once vulnerable, the leader and his thirty companions were massacred by the Muslims with ease, belying the probability that they were mostly unarmed, having been given a guarantee of safe passage (Ibn Ishaq 981).

Such was the reputation of Muslims for lying and then killing that even those who "accepted Islam" did not feel entirely safe.  The fate of the Jadhima is tragic evidence for this.  When Muslim "missionaries" approached their tribe one of the members insisted that they would be slaughtered even though they had already "converted" to Islam to avoid just such a demise.  However, the others were convinced that they could trust the Muslim leader's promise that they would not be harmed if they simply offered no resistance.  (After convincing the skeptic to lay down his arms, the unarmed men of the tribe were quickly tied up and beheaded - Ibn Ishaq 834 & 837).

Today's Muslims often try to justify Muhammad's murder of poets and others who criticized him at Medina by saying that they broke a treaty by their actions.  Yet, these same apologists place little value on treaties broken by Muslims.  From Muhammad to Saddam Hussein, promises made to non-Muslim are distinctly non-binding in the Muslim mindset.

Leaders in the Arab world routinely say one thing to English-speaking audiences and then something entirely different to their own people in Arabic.  Yassir Arafat was famous for telling Western newspapers about his desire for peace with Israel, then turning right around and whipping Palestinians into a hateful and violent frenzy against Jews.

The 9/11 hijackers practiced deception by going into bars and drinking alcohol, thus throwing off potential suspicion that they were fundamentalists plotting jihad.  This effort worked so well, in fact, that even weeks after 9/11, John Walsh, the host of a popular American television show, said that their bar trips were evidence of 'hypocrisy.'

The transmission from Flight 93 records the hijackers telling their doomed passengers that there is "a bomb on board" but that everyone will "be safe" as long as "their demands are met."  Obviously none of these things were true, but these men, who were so intensely devoted to Islam that they were willing to "slay and be slain for the cause of Allah" (as the Qur'an puts it) saw nothing wrong with employing Taqiyya in order to facilitate their mission of mass murder.

The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) insists that it "has not now or ever been involved with the Muslim Brotherhood, or supported any covert, illegal, or terrorist activity or organization."  In fact, it was created by the Muslim Brotherhood and has bankrolled Hamas.  At least nine founders or board members of ISNA have been accused by prosecutors of supporting terrorism.

Prior to engineering several deadly terror plots, such as the Fort Hood massacre and the attempt to blow up a Detroit-bound airliner, American cleric Anwar al-Awlaki was regularly sought out by NPR, PBS and even government leaders to expound on the peaceful nature of Islam.

The near absence of Qur'anic verse and reliable Hadith that encourage truthfulness is somewhat surprising, given that many Muslims are convinced that their religion teaches honesty.  In fact, it is because of this ingrained belief that many Muslims are quite honest.  When lying is addressed in the Qur'an, it is nearly always in reference to the "lies against Allah" - referring to the Jews and Christians who rejected Muhammad's claim to being a prophet.

Finally, the circumstances by which Muhammad allowed a believer to lie to a non-spouse are limited to those that either advance the cause of Islam or enable a Muslim to avoid harm to his well-being (and presumably that of other Muslims as well).  Although this should be kept very much in mind when dealing with matters of global security, such as Iran's nuclear intentions, it is not grounds for assuming that the Muslim one might personally encounter on the street or in the workplace is any less honest than anyone else.

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Assyrian genocide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Assyrian Genocide
Part of Armenian Genocide

Map of the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac genocide.
Towns where genocide occurred.

Towns that received refugees.

Other major cities.
  Regions of Assyrian (also known as Syrian, Syriac, Nestorian, and Chaldean) concentrations.
Location  Ottoman Empire
Date 1890s, 1914–1918, 1922–1925
Target Assyrian civilians
Attack type Deportation, mass murder, etc.
Deaths 275,000-300,000
Perpetrators Young Turk government, Kurdish tribes[1]

The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, Syriac: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire during the 1890s and the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian genocide and Greek genocide.[2][3] The Assyrian civilian population of upper Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin region, the Hakkâri, Van, and Siirt provinces of present-day southeastern Turkey, and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by the Muslim Ottoman (Turkish) army, together with other armed and allied Muslim peoples, including Kurds, Chechens and Circassians, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias.[2] Estimates on the overall death toll have varied. Providing detailed statistics of the various estimates of the Churches' population after the genocide, David Gaunt accepts the figure of 275,000 deaths as reported at the Treaty of Lausanne and ventures that the death toll would be around 300,000 because of uncounted Assyrian-inhabited areas, leading to the elimination of half of the Assyrian nation.[4]

The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context as the Armenian and Pontic Greek genocides.[5] In these events, close to three million Christians of Syriac, Armenian or Greek Orthodox denomination were murdered by the Young Turks regime.[2]

Since the "Assyrian genocide" took place within the context of the much more widespread Armenian genocide, scholarship treating it as a separate event is scarce, with the exceptions of the works of David Gaunt and Hannibal Travis.[3] In 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) reached a consensus that "the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks.[6] The IAGS referred to the work of Gaunt and Travis in passing this resolution.[7] Gregory Stanton, the President of the IAGS in 2007–2008 and the founder of Genocide Watch, endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety-year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians."[8]

  Young Turks and the Armenian Genocide

Home > Educational Resources > Encyclopedia Entries on the Armenian Genocide

"The high purpose of their mission was evidenced by their disposition at the command of two major CUP ideologues, Dr. Nazim and Dr. Behaeddin Shakir, both of them medical professionals, the prime organizers of the on-site implementation of the Armenian Genocide. Lastly, the CUP entrusted local command of the genocidal process to the provincial valis, or governors-general, who were made responsible for the execution of Talaat's and Enver's orders. "

The Young Turks were the perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide. The Young Turk Movement emerged in reaction to the absolutist rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid (Abdulhamit) II (1876-1909). With the 1878 suspension of the Ottoman Constitution, reform-minded Ottomans resorted to organizing overseas or underground. The backbone of the movement was formed by young military officers who were especially disturbed by the continuing decline of Ottoman power and attributed the crisis to the absence of an environment for change and progress. Working secretly in unconnected clusters under the watchful eye of the Hamidian secret police, the Young Turks succeeded in overturning the rule of the autocratic sultan when the Ottoman armies in European Turkey openly supported the movement. Abdul-Hamid's reinstatement of constitutional and parliamentary rule in July 1908 ushered in a brief period of legalized political activity by a panoply of reformist Turkish parties as well as Armenian political and revolutionary organizations. The Young Turks earned further public support when their intervention was required to suppress the April 1909 counter-revolution staged by the palace.

At the center of the Young Turk Revolution stood the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Ittihad ve Terakki Jemiyeti) formed in 1895. Its members came to be known as Ittihadists or Unionists. The most ideologically committed party in the entire movement, the CUP espoused a form of Turkish nationalism which was xenophobic and exclusionary in its thinking. Its policies threatened to undo the tattered fabric of a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society. Taking advantage of the political confusion reigning in the aftermath of the First Balkan War which the Ottoman Empire lost in 1912 to its former subject states, the CUP seized power in a coup d'etat in January 1913. As it led the empire to a partial recovery in the Second Balkan War, the CUP monopolized political power domestically by bringing the Parliament completely under its influence. It also began to steer away from the long-held Ottoman foreign policy of alliances with Great Britain and France, and forged a stronger military cooperation with Germany. Moreover, the CUP compensated for the Ottoman retreat in the Balkans by promoting Pan-Turkism, an expansionist program designed to challenge Russia in its southern tier. By the time World War I broke out in August 1914, the CUP constituted a chauvinistic band which had subordinated the Ottoman state to its Turkist ideology. It also propelled the country into war against its better interests by entering into a secret accord with Germany.

To consolidate Turkish rule in the remaining territories of the Ottoman Empire and to expand the state into the so-called Turanian lands in the east, most held by Iran and Russia, the CUP devised in secret a program for the extermination of the Armenian population. From the viewpoint of Ittihadist ideology and its new and ambitious foreign policy, the Armenians represented a completely vulnerable population straddling an area of major strategic value for its Pan-Turanian goals. Ottoman misrule had made the Armenians, a prosperous minority despite its political disadvantages, sympathetic to Russia. To the Ittihadists, the global crisis of 1914 represented a rare opportunity to change the fortunes of the Ottoman state and to use the cover of war to embark upon a policy of both internal and external social engineering the likes of which had not been attempted or imagined. Once again they gambled on the element of surprise, subterfuge, and radical daring, this time against a civilian minority population.

Even though the initial advance of Ottoman forces in 1914 into Russia and Iran did not result in a permanent expansion, on the whole the Ottoman armies held Allied forces in check until 1916 and did not capitulate until 1918. The main thrust of the Armenian Genocide, however, was implemented within the first year of the war, years ahead of any imminent collapse. While the mass deportations of the civilian Armenian population was carried out in the spring and summer of 1915 and were completed by the fall, the systematic slaughter of the Armenians had started earlier with the murder of the able-bodied males already drafted into the Ottoman armed forces. By expropriating the movable and immovable wealth of the Armenians, the CUP also looked upon its policy of genocide as a means for enriching its coffers and rewarding its cohorts. The elimination of a commercially viable minority fulfilled part of the nationalist program to concentrate financial power in the hands of the state and promote greater Turkish control over the domestic economy.

Enver, Talaat, and Jemal, who were responsible for these policies formed the governing triumvirate which had concentrated power its hands with the January 1913 coup. The triumvirs divided the governance of the Ottoman Empire among themselves.

A young military hero who married into the Ottoman dynasty, Enver provided the most public face of the CUP. As Minister of War he coordinated the buildup of the Turkish armed forces with German financial, logistical, and planning support. In an ill-conceived plan of attack, he precipitated land warfare against Russia in the Caucasus in the dead of winter. His December 1914 campaign cost an entire army lost in a period of four weeks. In his capacity as the Deputy Commander-in-Chief (the honorary command being reserved for the sovereign), Enver exercised ultimate control over the Ottoman armies which carried out major atrocities, first in 1915 and then with renewed vigor when Turkish forces broke the Russian line in 1918 and invaded the Caucasus. The forces under the command of his brother, Nuri, and uncle, Halil, spread devastation through Russian Armenia and carried out massacres of Armenians all the way to Baku. Talaat as Minister of the Interior in Istanbul ran the government for a figurehead grand vizier. He was the mastermind of the Armenian Genocide and coordinated the various agencies of the Ottoman government required for the deportation, expropriation, and extermination of the Armenians. Jemal who was Minister of the Navy controlled the southern part of the Ottoman Empire as virtual viceroy from his seat in Damascus and was responsible for checking the British line in Egypt. As commander of Syria, the concentration camps and extermination sites fell within his jurisdiction. Beyond the government ministries, the CUP also operated secret groups for the purpose of infiltrating enemy territory and for promoting Pan-Turkism in neighboring countries. The most infamous of its operations was the Teshkilâti Mahsusa, Special Organization, composed of outlaws especially recruited to carry out the CUP secret agenda. The high purpose of their mission was evidenced by their disposition at the command of two major CUP ideologues, Dr. Nazim and Dr. Behaeddin Shakir, both of them medical professionals, the prime organizers of the on-site implementation of the Armenian Genocide. Lastly, the CUP entrusted local command of the genocidal process to the provincial valis, or governors-general, who were made responsible for the execution of Talaat's and Enver's orders.

With the defeat of the Ottomans in World War I the denouement of the CUP became a drawn out matter pursued by all their opponents. Fully cognizant of the Allied threat to hold them responsible for war crimes, the CUP cabinet ministers resigned from the government with the signing of the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918. The key Ittihadist leaders fled Turkey, while the rank and file went underground. The post-war Ottoman government convened tribunals in 1919 to hear testimony on the conduct of the war and the implementation of the Armenian Genocide. While many second rank figures were prosecuted individually, the party as a whole was indicted for the crimes of conspiracy and massacre. The verdicts found the accused guilty of capital crimes, but the principal culprits were only tried in absentia. To bring them to justice, a clandestine group was formed by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak Party) to seek out and execute the Ittihadists in hiding in Germany and Italy. Vowing vengeance they tracked down Talaat in Berlin where he was assassinated in 1921. Behaeddin Shakir was also killed in Berlin in 1922, and Jemal in Tbilisi in 1922. Enver in a last adventure met his end in 1922 in Central Asia leading a cavalry charge against an advancing Red Army unit. Though most of the CUP chieftains had taken refuge in Germany, Jemal and Enver had established contact with the Bolsheviks offering their services in the cause of one more revolution. In the meantime, as he led the Turkish Nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal distanced himself from the Ittihadists but absorbed into his forces former CUP members prepared to switch allegiance. In 1926 Kemal himself stamped out the remaining cells of the CUP when they were accused of plotting his assassination and sent Dr. Nazim and others to the gallows.

—Rouben Paul Adalian

Armenian Genocide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Use of poison and drug overdoses

The psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton writes in a parenthesis when introducing the medical experiments during the Holocaust, "Perhaps Turkish doctors, in their participation in the genocide against the Armenians, come closest, as I shall later suggest".[55]

Morphine overdose: During the Trabzon trial series of the Martial court, from the sittings between 26 March and 17 May 1919, the Trabzons Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib caused the death of children with the injection of morphine. The information was allegedly provided by two physicians (Drs. Ragib and Vehib), both Dr. Saib's colleagues at Trabzons Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed.[56][57]

Toxic gas: Dr. Ziya Fuad and Dr. Adnan, public health services director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits reporting cases in which two school buildings were used to organize children and send them to the mezzanine to kill them with toxic gas equipment.[58][59]

Typhoid inoculation: The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote "on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the Third Army in January 1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians slated for deportation at Erzican were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood 'inactive'".[60][61] Jeremy Hugh Baron writes: "Individual doctors were directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes. Nazim's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu, Inspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign secretary from 1925 to 1938".[62]

More then 1720 names from all German officers, 
who served in the Ottoman/Turkish Army

by Wolfgang Klaus on 27 Nov 2007, 13:07

Mete Soytürk and I have been working since more then one year on a consolidated list. Mete did so far an incredible valuable work in putting all the information together. Now I added my information and choosed a new format in an alphabetic order and also pictures whereever available. It's now a 130pages list of more then 1720 names from all German officers, who served in the Ottoman/Turkish Army from 18century until 1918.
We couldn't solve the challenge to put the huge database online but we are working on that because it is (and will stay) a living document, which will improve with all the knowlegde from the online community.
I hope, you can recognize at least the principle on the attached side - more wasn't possible due to the size limitations.

Best regards

Offizierliste 19 small.jpg


A Pile Of Murdered Armenians Made Naked Killed And Piled


Besides starvation, the Turkish dictators had Armenians shot, stabbed and bayoneted to death, thrown off cliffs, and killed by exposure. Here Turkish soldiers pose with Armenians they presumably shot to death. For documentation, see Death By Government and Statistics of Democide. Source: "Pictures of the Armenian genocide".

NOTE: A question has been raised about the legitimacy of this photo, in that "the Turkish soldiers" appear to be wearing Russian and not Turkish army uniforms.

Reason: The Russian uniforms came from Armenians that had defected to the Russian Army and return. This was probably around Van. Before murdering them the Turks had them take their cloths off (notice they are naked corpus) After murdering them the Turkish took some of their cloths.  See below.

Next photo of those murdered by government
Return to Photographs of Democide, Room 1

Armenian resistance during the Armenian Genocide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Armenian Resistance

Part of World War I

Armenian Resistance.png
Conflicts of 1915 (red stars)


Central-East-South Anatolia


Massive Casualties, some regions avoid deportations and an establishment of local provisional Armenian government (1915-1917)


Ottoman Empire

Armenian Militia of Armenakans (Ramkavars), Hnchakians (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party), and Dashnaktsutiun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation)

The Armenian resistance is a name given to the military and political activities of the Armenian's under the Armenian political parties of Henchak, Armenakan, Dashnaktsutiun against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, considered a struggle for freedom and resistance to the Armenian Genocide by the Armenian combatants, but high treason by the Ottoman Empire. These Armenian national organizations established Armenian Fedayee (Armenian: Ֆէտայի) generally referred to as Armenian partisan guerrilla detachments and the Russian Empire formed Armenian volunteer units, which recruited Ottoman Armenians from behind the Ottoman lines, to help the Russian Caucasus Army against the Ottoman Empire.[1] During this initial period Siege of Van on April 20, 1915 and consequently establishment of Administration for Western Armenia were significant events, that according to minister of interior Mehmed Talat Bey this rise of Armenian national liberation movement and the Fifth column activity as stated in his order on April 24, 1915 ended with arrests in Red Sunday and later Ottoman parliament passed Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, which enabled the massive deportation of the Armenian people from the region.

The deportations and massive massacres of the period of about 1,500,000 Armenians.[1] Armenian side and the majority of scholars refer to this period as the Armenian Genocide, while Ottoman and Turkish sources refer to it as the insurgency against the Ottoman Empire with the goal of establishing first Armenian Republic on the Ottoman Armenian territory.


Seventy year old priest leading Armenians

In the spring of 1914, there were intercepted letters from Armenian political organizations expressing concern over the developments regarding World War I, which Ottoman Empire was neutral at the moment.[10] In one of these documents, the ARF requested weapons from the Russians.[10]

In July 1914, at the beginning of this world conflagration, in 1914, both the Russian and the Turkish governments officially appealed to various Armenian national organizations with many promises in order to secure the active participation of the Armenians in the military operations against each other at the Armenian congress at Erzurum[11] The main of opposition in Ottoman Empire to Turco-German alliance was the Armenian people, who for four years and without an organized government or a national army, played the same role in the Near East by preventing the Turco-German advance toward the interior of Asia as the Belgians played in the West by arresting the march of Germany toward Paris.[11] After this meeting the CUP was convinced on strong Armenian—Russian links with detailed plans aimed at the detachment of the region from the Ottoman Empire.[12]

In August 1914, at Zeitun Resistance the Hunchaks resisted to the Ottoman Military in the city Zeitun.

In September, 1914, Erzurum Fortress reported to Ottoman Headquarters that they received a report that the Armenian regiments were mobilized and were conducting war-training exercises.[10] There were reports from Ottoman infantry battalions in the region concerning Armenian meetings at which large numbers of Armenian nationals were gathering in secret meetings.[10] The Ottoman military was uncomfortable as they recognized that thousands of Ottoman Armenian citizens were deliberately leaving their homes in Ottoman territory.[10] These initial migrations may have many reasons, such as Armenians afraid of possible violence move to regions which they feel secure. Although Ottoman Empire was neutral on the paper, many Ottoman officers were convinced that Russia was actively preparing the war zone.[10]

In October 1914, a patrolling Ottoman unit (October 20) in Koprukoy discovered Russian rifles cached in Armenian homes in Hasankale.[10] The Third Army was received reports of Armenians that served in Russian Army returning to Empire with operation maps and financial resources.[10]

On November 2, 1914, Bergmann Offensive was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign[13] The Russian success was along the southern shoulders of the offense where Armenian volunteers were effective and took Karaköse and Doğubeyazıt.[14]

On December 29, 1914, the Battle of Sarikamis was a stunning Ottoman defeat. The Armenian detachment units credited no small measure of the success which attended by the Russian forces, as they were natives of the region, adjusted to the climatic conditions, familiar with every road and mountain path, and had real incentive to fierce and resolute combat.[15] Armenian detachment battalions challenged the Ottoman operations during the critical times: "the delay enabled the Russian Caucasus Army to concentrate sufficient force around Sarikamish".[16]

In the fall of 1914, (November, December, and into January 1915) substantial size of reports fall into the General Staff in Constantinople outlined the insecurity (danger) posed by armed Armenian militia's in the Third Army (Caucuses) and in the Fourth Army (Mediterranean region) areas.[12] Incidents of bombings and assassinations of civilians and local officials increased during this period.[12]


On February 25, 1915, the famous "Directive 8682" was issued and distributed secretly in the form of a ciphered cable. The directive was received by the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Armies; the Iraq Command: I, II, III, IV, V Army Corps: and to the Jandarma Command, where the Armenian population was dominant. The title of the directive was "Increased Security Precautions". The directive began with summarising dissident Armenian activity in Bitlis, Aleppo, Dortyol, and Kayseri.[12] The directive stated that the Russians and French had influence on activities in these areas.[12] Finally, the directive ordered any ethnic Armenian soldiers should be removed from headquarters staff and taken out of command centers.

From February through July 1915, a great many additional reports from provincial officials and lower level army units reinforced the pattern of allied intelligence gathering of Ottoman military activities.[12] The Ministry of the Interior’s Intelligence Division noted that the Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople was transmitting military secrets and dispositions to the Russians.[12] It was believed at this time that a seventy-year-old priest was leading Armenians[17]

On March 25, Hunchaks of the city Zeitun begun the second Zeitun Resistance.

In April, around 30,000 Armenians in the city of Van, in addition to the Armenians from surrounding villages, defended themselves during the Siege of Van.[18] The biggest achievement was the establishment of the Administration for Western Armenia with the Aram Manukian at the head. Armenian forces kept the Ottomans out by at the cost of thousands of civilians killed. The initial armed resistance lasted for a period of less than a month. In May, the Armenian volunteer units and Russian Caucasus Army entered the city and successfully drove the Ottoman army out of Van.[18]

On May 27, hundreds of Armenians were captured by Ottoman authorities in Urfa after the Urfa Resistance. At Urfa the Armenians repulsed the attacks of one division, but finally fell under heavy fire from artillery commanded by German officers. The Armenians destroyed all their property so that it would not fall into the hands of the Ottomans or Germans.

In July, the resistance of Mourat and his comrades occurred at Sivas. When deportations were ordered gendarmes were sent to capture Mourat, Mourat defended himself with his compatriots for a year and a half.[16] On June 15, the Ottoman government hanged the The Twenty Martyrs. Armenians resisted for a month with Shabin-Karahisar uprising until Neshed Pasha left Sivas with three regiments and artillery to subdue them.

On August 19, Armenian defended the city of Van for a second time until the arrival of Russian army with Andranik Ozanian lifted the siege.

The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks, 1914-1923

Pontian and Anatolian Greeks were victims of a broader Turkish genocidal project aimed at all Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire. A total of more than 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians were killed under the successive regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal from roughly 1914 to 1923. Of this, as many as 1.5 million Greeks may have died. The end of the genocide marked a profound rupture in the long Greek historical presence on the Asia Minor.

Map courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Greek communities began inhabiting Anatolia (Greek for “east”), otherwise referred to as the Asia Minor, since the 12th century BCE. They centered mostly along the Aegean littoral, although some Greeks, known as Pontians, went further east and colonized the southern shores of the Black Sea. Turkic peoples migrated into Anatolia over the first millennium CE and by the 14th century had established the Ottoman Empire. Over the next six hundred years, the Empire organized its ethnically diverse population into the millet system, thereby ensuring cultural and religious pluralism. Under this system, the Ottoman Greeks, like other Christian communities in the Empire, were provided with a degree of autonomy.

The geographic extent and political power of the Ottoman Empire began to decline over the 19th century as subjected peoples, especially the Greeks, began exerting their own nationalist aspirations. With the support of the Great Powers, the Greeks successfully overthrew Ottoman rule during their War of Independence from 1821 to 1830, thereby establishing the modern Greek state as it is currently situated at the tip of the Balkan Peninsula. However, the over two and a half million ethnic Greeks still living in Anatolia, separated from their Balkan compatriots, suffered the scorn of an increasingly vitriolic Turkish nationalism tainted by a bitter sense of humiliation. The Young Turk movement emerged from this context, eventually aiming to turn the multiethnic Ottoman Empire into a homogenous Turkish nation state. Under the banner of the Committee for the Union of Progress (CUP), this ethnic nationalist movement assumed power after a coup d’état in 1913.

This political revolution occurred in the midst of the Balkan Wars from October 1912 to July 1913, which ultimately ended five centuries of Ottoman rule in the Balkans. Afterwards, there was a brief diplomatic effort between the Greeks and the CUP to arrange a population exchange. However, the outbreak of World War I stunted this effort, and instead the CUP took its own radical initiatives. They began singling out all able-bodied Greek men, forcibly conscripting them into labor battalions which performed slave labor for the Turkish war effort. Greek children were stolen and forcibly assimilated into Turkish society. Greek villages were brutally plundered and terrorized under the pretext of internal security. Indeed, as with the Armenians, the Greeks were generally accused as a disloyal and traitorous “fifth-column,” and eventually most of the population was rounded up and forcibly deported to the interior. This modus operadi was more or less the same for all three Christian victim groups.

Greek men in Smyrna guarded by Turkish troops for deportation to the interior (September 1922); courtesy of Greek-Genocide.org

Again with support of the Great Powers, Greece invaded part of Anatolia immediately after the defeat of the Ottomans in World War I. Centered around the Aegean port city of Smyrna (now known by its Turkish name, ?zmir), Greek occupation forces brutally subjected local Turks, thereby further stoking interethnic conflagrations. At the same time, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was leading a Turkish resurgence, eventually dispelling the Greek military from Anatolia. Turkish forces retook Smyrna in September 1922, instigating a massive anti-Greek pogrom. On September 13, a fire broke out amidst the chaos, spreading uncontrollably over the next two weeks. The Smyrna catastrophe took the lives of somewhere between 10,000 to 15,000 Greeks. Two months later, diplomatic negotiations between the Kemalist regime and the Great Powers began in Switzerland, leading to the signing of the Treat of Lausanne in February 1923. The sovereign status of a Turkish nation state was thereby affirmed, and the Great Powers essentially condoned the Turkish genocidal project.

The demographic consequences of the Greek genocide are not objectively certain. The prewar population of Greeks was at least 2.5 million. Over the course of 1914 to 1923, about one million had migrated, some voluntarily but most under coercion. As many as 1.5 million Greeks died, either from massacre or exposure, although this figure is not positive. Presently, a miniscule Greek population remains in Turkey. Greek communities annually commemorate the genocide on September 14 in recognition of the Smyrna catastrophe.



by Karl Loren


GSPN: German Society for Psychiatrists and Neurologists which had changed its name in 1955 from the German Society of Neurologists and Psychiatrists, started in 1935.

Sterilization Act, 1933: the law that cleared the path for wholesale euthanasia in Germany. The estimated number of sterilizations was between 100,000 and 350,000.

WPA: World Psychiatric Association

WFMH: World Federation of Mental Health

T4: This is the name and number of a street in Berlin, Tiergartenstrasse 4, where the Working Association of Sanitariums and Caretaking Facilities of the Republic (Reichsarbeitgemeinschaft Heil-und Pflegeanstalten) was located. The organization's sole purpose was to gather and kill "inferiors." T4 was, in fact, the nerve center of the extermination campaign and was not just the forerunner of the ensuing mass extermination of the Jews, Gypsies, Poles and other human beings "unworthy of life." T4 was actually the organizer, education center and spiritual and administrative focal point that would continue in its criminal activity for another six years.

Questionnaires from state and private sanitariums and caretaking institutes poured into the T4 euthanasia headquarters. Consultants then marked the form: those who were to be killed had a red "+" sign, and those allowed to live were marked with a blue "-" sign.

They "did no examinations, had no access to medical histories, and made their decision solely on the basis of the questionnaire." However, Jewish inmates did not have to fit the normal criteria used for normal medical killing.

By August 1941, T4 had already reached its original quota of 70,000 persons euthanized. Indeed, it had exceeded its quota--by 273 persons.

The psychiatrists involved in the Nazi killing machine were needed for their leadership skills and chosen for their closeness to the Nazi regime, their high recognition in the profession and their sympathy for euthanasia, or at the very least a radical approach to eugenics.


In 1916, Ernst Rüdin was appointed Professor of Psychiatry of the Department of Genealogy of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and in 1919 became its director. In 1933, he was promoted within the Third Reich to Commissioner of the German Society for Racial Hygiene and named Chairman of the Advisory Board of experts on population and racial politics.

Besides being a racial hygienist and the principal drafter of the Sterilization Act he was also the co-author of the treatise which was relied upon as the Nazi's justification for the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Children. His co-author, Falk Ruttke, was also the author of the Nuremberg Race Act, which legalized the persecution of Jews.

It is difficult to overstate Rüdin's influence on the Third Reich's atrocities. He was able to become a significant source of legitimization for the Nazi regime's racial policies and through him, psychiatry enjoyed what amounted to carte blanche to research, develop and even practice its most deadly and inhumane theories and methods.

In 1937, he joined the Nazi Party and two years later was awarded the Goethe Medal for Art and Science by Adolf Hitler himself. Five years later, the Fuhrer personally honored Rüdin with a bronze medal embossed with a swastika and with the honorary title of "Pioneer of Racial Hygiene."

In 1943, he wrote of Hitler, extolling him and the Regime for their "decisive...path-breaking step toward making racial hygiene a fact among the German people...and inhibiting the propagation of the congenitally ill and inferior." He praised the laws for "preventing the further penetration of the German gene pool with Jewish blood," and the SS for "its ultimate goal, the creation of a special group of medically superior and healthy people of the German Nordic type."

Rüdin was removed from his directorship in November of 1945 by the American military government, but he was never brought to trial. He claimed to be "only a nominal member" of the Nazis and with that managed to be completely exonerated. He is one of the most outrageous examples of psychiatrists who neither fled nor hid. They just acted as if nothing had happened.

Escaped Justice:

Leonardo Conti, State Secretary of the Ministry of Interior, Member of the SS:

In July, 1939, Hitler appointed Conti responsible for administering the euthanasia program. On October 9, 1939, an edict was issued requiring all institutions throughout the Third Reich to categorize all of their patients and inmates according to stated criteria. Conti required reports to be compiled and submitted on all those in care or custody who suffered from a variety of stated symptoms, among them: schizophrenia, epilepsy, senility, paralytic diseases, and feeble-mindedness. Also to be reported were all persons who had been imprisoned for five years or more or who were "criminal" or "not of German or related species' blood."

In 1940, Conti personally administered lethal injections to four to six patients who "died only slowly" and some had to be injected a second time. Consequently, the gas chambers were considered a better killing alternative.


Conti, who remained Minister of Health until 1945, committed suicide, avoiding justice.

Werner Heyde: T4 DIRECTOR, Member of the Nazi Party and Gestapo

In 1933, Heyde was one of the chief organizers of the euthanasia program. He released a mental patient, Theodor Eicke, a hardened convicted felon, as no longer dangerous. Later, Eicke became the first commandant of Dachau and in 1934 was promoted to Inspector General and Chief of all concentration camps. By 1936, Eicke had become the leader of the SS "Deathhead" units of which Heyde was also a member.

Heyde joined the Nazi party in 1933, then joined and became an advisor to the Gestapo. By 1935 had become an Associate Judge of the Court for the Elimination of Hereditary Disease which arbitrated sterilization requests. On July 1, 1936, Heyde was appointed to establish and direct "the psychiatric-neurological and genetic surveillance of the concentration camps." In January, 1940, he oversaw the first killings which used carbon monoxide gas. Eighteen to twenty naked men were led into the "shower room" by nursing staff. The door was shut behind them--they collapsed within one minute. After another five minutes the room was aired. SS personnel took the dead on special stretchers to the crematorium furnaces. The victims did not undergo any medical examination to determine if they were dead before they were cremated. The apparent "success" of this test killing hastened the production of killing facilities.

Later Heyde moved to Berlin to become T4's medical director and to supervise it's consulting staff of approximately 30 physicians, most of whom were psychiatrists.

Heyde was eventually arrested in 1947 by the allies but fled and managed to resume his work as a psychiatrist under the alias of "Dr. Sawade." He became active as a psychiatric consultant in the Courts of the Schleswig-Holstein district of Germany, "even though numerous professors, the Director of the Social Court, the Chief Justice of the provincial Social Court, a district court counselor, a Social Court counselor, two presidents of the Senate and even a federal judge all knew that Professor Heyde was also Dr. Sawade."


Heyde was re-arrested but in 1961 committed suicide in his cell, before his trial could begin.

Professor Paul Nitsche: Head of T4.

Starting in April of 1941, eminent physicians and psychiatrists began to visit the concentration camps, among them Dr. Werner Heyde and Nitsche, the leading T4 consultants. Nitsche, who replaced Heyde as head of the T4, later admitted that "the killing... went along the exact same lines and with the same registration forms as in the insane asylums."

He was also editor of the German Journal for Mental Hygiene and was director of various state hospitals.


Ordered to be executed by judges in the Nuremberg Trials, he was sent to the guillotine on March 25, 1948, in Dresden.

Max de Crinis: T4 Nazi psychiatrist, MEMBER OF THE SS.

An Austrian, he practiced in Germany and joined the Nazi Party in 1931. He was considered "the most outspoken and influential Nazi" within German psychiatry and was a psychiatric consultant at the highest level of the regime. He was thought to have provided Hitler with the wording for the original "euthanasia" decree.

By 1936, he was active in the SS and its Race and Settlement Office; he became medical director of the Ministry of Education in 1941. He was also Committee Member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (which became the Max Planck Institute involved in psychiatric research) and was a Director of the European League for Mental Hygiene.


While fleeing from the authorities and justice, on May 1, 1945, De Crinis killed himself in the prescribed Nazi manner, by swallowing potassium cyanide but not before he also caused the deaths of his family in the same way.


Eberl served as a deputy to Dr. Werner Heyde in supervising the false causes of death and to establish policies for maintaining subterfuge for T4.

An Austrian, he joined the Nazi Party when he was 21-years-old. At 29, he was one of the first to be shown how the poison gas killing methodology worked. In addition to serving in the inner circle of psychiatric experts, he was given special authority to enter various psychiatric institutions to investigate their attitudes towards, and willingness to work in the euthanasia killing program.

At age 32, he went on to become commandant of the notorious death camp, Treblinka, where, with his T4 experience, he was able to construct the gassing apparatus for killing inmates.

He also organized the transporting of Jewish patients to his killing institution at Brandenburg. In August, 1942 alone, he had 215,000 Jews killed (compared to 18,000 patients killed in just over 18 months when he was a T4 expert).

Escaped Justice:

Carl Schneider, T4 psychiatrist, MEMBER OF THE NAZI PARTY

An Austrian, he became director of the University Clinic in Heidelberg. He joined the Nazi Party in 1932 and became a "leader of German psychiatry," who "took on the mission of preaching National Socialism and offering his own enlightened program of work therapy ..."

"Work therapy," sterilization and medical killing were his proffered ways of "helping" patients. He obtained large sums of money for a research institute where he initiated some of his work, using the brains from the euthanasia program.

At the Rhenish Eichberg Institute in the Rhinegau, which conducted one of the euthanasia programs, human experiments with medical drugs were performed on behalf of I. G. Farben, the chemical manufacturer, which provided carbon monoxide for the gas chambers of concentration camps and the pesticide Zyklon B for experiments on Soviet prisoners of war. At this institute, both children and adults were killed on a regular basis until the end of the war. An argument over the brains of these victims erupted between the Eichberg and Heidelberg research departments. Professor Schneider in Heidelberg demanded part of the so-called "material" for his own research.


Schneider was a member of the T4 team. He was executed as a result of the Nuremberg Trials.

Professor Hans Heinze: T4 Nazi psychiatrist; headed the pediatric department of a killing Institute, Laender.

Heinze gained prominence in the Reich's "Committee for the Scientific Registration of Hereditary and Inherent Sufferings," the "cover organization for the murder of handicapped children and youth." The committee was affiliated with T4. The only difference was that it was responsible for child euthanasia.

In 1931, while Dr. Heinze was a physician at the children's outpatient department at Leipzig, he collaborated with Paul Schroder on a book called Child Personalities and Their Abnormalities. In the first paragraph of the introduction, they define what they mean by the word "degenerate": It "is not equal to 'sick'. 'Degenerate' also includes the oversized or undersized person, the athlete, the highly talented, the genius. A degenerate in the psychological area is someone who...deviates above and below the average."

Heinze was dedicated to defining, segregating and exterminating certain classes of people, following the dictates of the state economy, Nazi doctrine and the precepts of "racial hygiene psychiatry."

In 1939, Heinze, a director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (see Max Planck Institute), was bestowed with the unusual honor of a seat on its Board of Trustees of their Brain Research Institute, and it is extremely likely that a child-killing department was installed there.

By 1940, Leander Institute at Brandenburg-Gorden, where Heize was head of its pediatric department, was functioning as a halfway house for T4 "supply transports." Some of the sanitarium's children were sent to the gas chambers of the former prison at Brandenburg, after which their corpses were dissected for psychiatric research.

The institution was also used as training center for other physicians in charge of killing facilities and was referred to as the "Reich's Schooling Station."

Sentenced to Hard Labor: Then Mentally Unfit to Stand Trial

Heinze was tried and convicted in 1946 by a Russian military tribunal which sentenced him to seven years' hard labor. He served his term in various prisons until 1952, whereupon he returned to Germany, and became an assistant physician at a sanitarium near Munster in Westphalia.

In 1962, a preliminary inquiry into Heinze's wartime activities was begun, but several medical opinions certified him as unfit to be questioned and unable to understand the proceedings. In 1967, he was deemed unfit to stand trial because he was a "mental wreck."

When he died, nearly two decades later, the following obituary appeared: "At the age of 87, the former director of our department for child and adolescent psychiatry died on February 4, 1983...We shall honor his memory"--signed by The Board of Directors and the Director of Human Resources of the Neiders state hospital of Lower Saxony, Wunstdorf.


Director of Kaufbeuren psychiatric hospital and its Child Euthanasia program. Faltlhauser passed around a menu at the facility: "totally fat free," it consisted of potatoes, yellow turnips, and cabbage cooked in water. "The effect," he claimed, "should be a slow death, which would ensue in about three months."

On May 8, 1945, the war ended in Germany. In the extermination institutes, they either kept on killing, or let the patients starve to death. As late as May 29, 1945, a four-year-old feeble-minded boy was murdered in Kaufbeuren, and on July 2, 1945, a physician who was junior to the director, hanged himself--Only 12 hours earlier, the last adult patient had died.

Escaped Justice:

Berthold Kihn of Jena: T4 psychiatrist: Kihn filled out "questionnaires" and personally supervised the selection of "patients" in various institutions. Erich Straub: He was a T4 consultant. Dr. Ernst Wentzler: One of the three chief experts of the child euthanasia Reich Committee.


Dr. Hermann Pfannmüller of Eglfing-Haar (camp):

Dr. Pfannmüller joined the Nazi party in May, 1933. He believed strongly in the concept of "life devoid of value," which demanded the eliminated of what he called "the pitiful patient" who showed "the semblance of being of a human existence."

Pfannmüller was the director of the institution, Eglfing-Haar, for children. He developed a special starvation diet as a method of killing "useless eaters," especially children. In 1939, Pfannmüller explained to visiting psychology students the euthanasia or mercy killing that was being conducted--some 25 children, aged between one and five were being starved to death. Pfannmuller lifted up one emaciated child who was near death and told the students that food was withdrawn gradually, not all
at once. The motto was: "We give them no fat, then they go on their own."

In 1943, he established two more "starvation houses," this time for an adult population. Some 444 patients died directly or indirectly (contracting pneumonia while malnutritioned) from his diet.

In a report on an interview with him for the Nuremberg Trials, Pfannmüller was described as "a brutal fellow who actually enjoyed to dispatch patients to their death...[was] mostly directly responsible" for the killings at the Eglfing-Haar asylum.

Pfannmuller testified at the Nuremberg trials, "...euthanasia and the work of the National Board had, in my view, nothing to do with National Socialism. They were just as legal as the regulations for prevention of transmission of hereditary diseases and infection in marriage. These laws were passed during the National Socialist Regime. But the ideas from which they arose are centuries old."

Found Mentally Unfit to Stand Trial:

In 1948, he was declared unfit to stand trial. The next year he was sentenced to six years jail.

Julius Hallervorden:

Hallervorden was a brain specialist who was Chairman of the Special Pathology Section of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute; he supported the autopsy of euthanized children for research purposes and dissected their brains himself. [The institute's director was psychiatrist Hans Heinze who would later become a T4 expert.]

He also conducted research on 500 brains of Jewish vitims from the killing centers of the mentally ill. He ordered Nazi physicians to send him the brains from concentration camps, stating: "...I heard that they would do it and so I went there and said to them, 'Look here, boys, if you kill the people anyway, then at least remove the brains so that the material can be used. They asked me how many I could examine and I told them, 'An unlimited amount, the more the merrier'...There was wonderful material among these brains, great mental illnesses, deformities and early childhood illnesses. Of course, I accepted the brains. Where they came from and how they got there was of no real interest to me."

Escaped Justice

Hallervorden and his boss, Hugo Spatz, fled to Giessen after the war but later ran the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt until 1957. The fate of the "Hallervorden Collection" was not sealed until 1990. The Max Planck Institute finally admitted that the "historical material" stored in its basement was the harvest of Nazi euthanasia. The "material" was eventually given a burial at a Munich cemetery.


Then there were the T4 consultants who, despite their involvement in this murder machine, were appointed presidents of the German Society of Psychiatrists and Neurologists after the war.

WERNER VILLINGER: T4 CONSULTANT, Member of the Nazi Party, President of the GSPN, 1952-54.

[President of the German Association for Adolescent Psychiatry, 1952-1961.]

From 1927, Villinger was a follower of Fritz Lenz, a leading advocate of the racial hygiene movement, and whose published works were credited with influencing Hitler. Between 1934 and 1938, Villinger was a member of Germany's criminal-biological Society, whose chairmen included Ernst Rüdin and Lenz.

On May 1, 1937, while serving as an associate judge of the High Court for Genetic Health in Hamm and Breslau, Villinger joined the Nazi party. That was a year and a half after the time that official records show that 2,675 notifications for sterilization were reported, 600 applications for sterilization were filed and 460 sterilizations were actually performed all under Villinger's direction. Villinger also relied upon the guidelines of the 1933 Sterilization Act to justify sterilizing what he deemed to be "asocials." As a military district psychiatrist in 1941, Villinger is listed in official Nazi records as a T4 consultant and thus was involved in the euthanasia program.

According to T4 staff member Meumann, "the registration forms that were processed by [Villinger] came back to us with considerable delays." He eventually became a critic of euthanasia, preferring compulsory sterilization.

After the war in 1946, he went on to become a Professor and Director of the psychiatric clinic at the University of Marburg and became president of the GSPN in 1952. The Hamburg Medical Faculty described Villinger after 1945 as follows: "Above all as the leading adolescent psychiatrist in the country, it has seldom been mentioned that Villinger is also one of the most active advocates for the application and broad minded interpretation of the Sterilization Act and as a consultant he contributed also to adult euthanasia."

In 1953, he was awarded the "Cross of the Order of Merit" and later denied his activities as a T4 consultant.

Escaped Justice:

Dr. Friedrich Mauz, T4 Consultant, President GSPN 1957-1958.

In 1928, Mauz was a university lecturer and a professor of psychiatry at Koenigsberg from 1939-1945, holding the same position at Münster beginning 1953.

Mauz was intimately involved in the development of the law for "ending the suffering" of the incurably ill. The final session of the planning of this law took place in August, 1940. The final draft no longer exists, but is documented by a collection of several statements by the participants. The physicians involved were mostly concerned with finding an incontrovertible legal basis for euthanasia. Hitler rejected the draft and left it in a drawer. In the end, then, the psychiatric murders continued unhindered and outside of the law.

Mauz, a T4 consultant, was revered by his peers after the war. According to the "Munsterische Zeitung" on May 17, 1980, "The medical faculty of the University of Munster commemorates today their member of long-standing and Director of the University Clinic, Prof. Dr. Robert Friedrich Mauz...He has helped, as hardly any other psychiatrist of his generation has, to shape the thoughts and actions of German medicine...(Let us) then pay tribute to the special accomplishments of Friedrich Mauz."

Years later, in Mauz's obituary, psychiatrist Rainer Tolle refers to Mauz's tenure as a T4 consultant as follows: "In 1932, Mauz and Kretschmer were called to Bern. If this plan had not fallen apart, Mauz might have been spared a few troubles during the following years and the war, which also left a stain on his record."

Escaped Justice:

In 1948, he was an official delegate to the Third International Congress of Mental Hygiene in London which formed the WFMH.

Friedrich Panse: T4 Nazi psychiatrist; PRESIDENT OF THE GSNP: 1965 - 1966

Dr. Panse was also a military district psychiatrist. Before that, however, he was the assistant medical director at the Wittenauer
Heilstatten and an associate judge at the High and Common Courts for Freedom from Hereditary Diseases, collaborating in sterilization matters with Dr. Heyde, among others. In 1935, Panse, along with Kurt Pohlisch, created the Rhenish Provincial Institute for Psychiatric and Neurological Genetics." In 1940, he became a T4 consultant.

Panse was admitted into the GSPN's predecessor group, GSNP, in 1937, the same year he was lecturering on racial hygiene at the University of Bonn.

The propaganda film about euthanasia that was produced by the Reich was based on an idea by Panse. In 1942, the treatment and cure of war-neurotics, using a form of electroshock, was named after him and called "pansen." It involved very painful stimulations of electrical currents applied to large sections of the skin using a roller. War neurotics in Panse's mind, however, meant that they had "psychopathy with the purpose of surreptitiously obtaining pensions and compensations." In other words, Panse believed soldiers faked being traumatized by the war.

In 1943, he was present at a secret euthanasia conference attended by leading psychiatrists in Berlin in 1943.


In 1947, he was acquitted of wartime collaboration with the Nazis; however, he was never even called upon to explain his actions as a psychiatrist or to account for his methodologies.

He continued to lecture after the war until 1967 at the Universities of Bonn and Dusseldorf . He died in 1973.


Did the Armenian Genocide Inspire Hitler? -Turkey, Past and Future

by Hannibal Travis Middle East Quarterly Winter 2013, pp. 27-35

It is well known by genocide scholars that in 1939 Adolf Hitler urged his generals to exterminate members of the Polish race.[1] "Who speaks today of the extermination of the Armenians?" Hitler asked, just a week before the September 1, 1939 invasion of Poland.[2] However, while it is generally agreed that Hitler was well aware of the Armenian genocide,[3] some genocide scholars and historians of the Ottoman Empire have questioned whether he actually made the above statement or even intended to exterminate portions of the "Polish race."[4]

Still, there is evidence that the massacre of the Ottoman Armenians helped persuade the Nazis that national minorities posed a threat to empires dominated by an ethnic group such as the Germans or the Turks. Furthermore, these minorities could be exterminated to the benefit of the perpetrator with little risk. Indeed, it was German officials who had smuggled out of the Ottoman Empire the leaders of the Young Turk regime, culpable for the deaths of over a million Armenians and a million or more other Christian minorities such as the Assyrians and Greeks.[5] Diverse historical evidence suggests that Hitler viewed the Armenians and Poles as analogous; in several ways, his statement about the Armenians was consistent with his other beliefs and writings.

A number of clues point to the possibility that Hitler's "final solution" was inspired by the Turkish massacre of its Armenian population in 1915. His infamous 1939 question, "Who speaks today of the extermination of the Armenians?" although hotly debated concerning its authenticity, is only one indication leading to that conclusion.


The Assassin's Leak

The historical context of Hitler's statement and the manner in which it came to Western attention has long been problematic. On November 24, 1945, The Times of London published an article stating that Hitler referred to the extermination of the Armenians during an address to his commanders-in-chief on August 22, 1939, a statement that was read at a hearing of the Nuremberg trial. Hitler's speech asserted that the

aim of the war is not to attain certain lines, but consists in the physical destruction of the opponent. Thus, for the time being, I have sent to the East only my "Death's Head units" with the order to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Only in such a way, will we win the vital living space that we need. Who still talks nowadays of the extermination of the Armenians?[6]

The anti-Nazi writer Louis Lochner, a former bureau chief of the Associated Press in Berlin, quoted Hitler's statement from an original Nazi document before the Nuremberg trials had even convened.[7]Lochner had a variety of sources within the Nazi government and had been interned from December 1941 to May 1942 before being exchanged for German diplomats interned in the United States. After his release, he published What about Germany? containing the quote mentioning the Armenians.[8]The quote was used in the November 1945 The Times article, which cited the ongoing proceedings of the Nuremberg trials.

Two additional copies of the memorandum describing Hitler's speech were found immediately after the war in the files of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (German High Command, OKW), but neither contained the Armenian quote. Nor was either military document signed as would be expected for an official record of a meeting. These incongruities led Nuremberg prosecutors to conclude that there had been two Hitler speeches on August 22 and that the Lochner version containing the quote was a merger of notes from both. As a result of the disparities, objections were made by lawyers for two Nuremberg defendants, Hermann Göring and Erich Raeder, to the authenticity of the OKW versions and to the inclusion of the Lochner document in evidence. The key issue for the defense was not the Armenian quote per se but rather the term "brutal measures," which they claimed was never used by Hitler although they conceded that he had used "severe" expressions.[9]

Since the prosecution had other records of the meetings, as well as one introduced by defendant Raeder, the Lochner document was included in the trial record but was not introduced as evidence. In the context of the Nuremberg trials, the overriding issue was not the Armenian quote but Hitler's call for a brutal war of aggression against Poland. But defenders of the Ottoman Empire regard the court's decision as key: The military versions of Hitler's speech without the quote are viewed as more reliable, and the Lochner version as suspect or tainted.[10]

The question of Lochner's source for the document, and hence the quote, has therefore been the crux of intense historical interest. Lochner himself indicated only that he had obtained it from "Mr. Maass" without saying who the original source was at the August 22, 1939 meeting. But subsequent research had shown that the Lochner and The Times versions have a clear chain of transmission.[11] The original source of Hitler's speech on the Poles and the Armenians and of its transmission to The Timeswas Wilhelm Canaris,[12] head of the Abwehr, a German military intelligence organization, and a leading figure in the military opposition to Hitler. Canaris became involved with several conspiracies against the dictator, including a July 20, 1944 assassination plot. Another member of the German resistance, Hans Bernd Gisevius, confirmed that Canaris took notes of the speech even though it was "forbidden to do so."[13]

Canaris's notes were passed to three men, all of whom were executed before the Nuremberg trials convened and thus could not be questioned: Hans Oster, Ludwig Beck, and Hermann Maass. Historian Kevork Bardakjian concluded that Canaris likely passed the notes to his deputy, Oster, who then transmitted them to Beck, a conservative general and former chief of the General Staff, who had long opposed Nazi influence on the German military and foreign policy. Beck probably instructed Maass, formerly general manager of the Reich Committee of German Youth Associations, to give the document to Lochner due to Beck's role as a "leader of the German resistance." Like Canaris, Beck was involved in a number of conspiracies and was executed after the failure of the July 20, 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler, in which he had a leading role.[14] Finally, historian Winfried Baumgart has argued that Canaris's notes also appear to have been the source of the two unsigned documents in the German high command files.[15]

Gisevius and Oster believed that the invasion of Poland gave them a unique chance to get rid of Hitler and ensure peace with Poland.[16] Canaris's opposition to Hitler was wide-ranging. An official with British intelligence boasted of having "buil[t] … up" Canaris as a potential assassin of Hitler.[17] In 1944, the Gestapo found documents revealing Canaris to be conspiring with Catholics and the West against Hitler. The admiral was executed in a concentration camp on April 9, 1945, for plotting a coup against Hitler, along with Oster.[18]

Turkish Historians on the "Armenian Quote"

Hitler's citation of the Armenians in his August 22, 1939 meeting has been an important concern for Turkish historians and pro-Ottoman analysts. Türkkaya Ataöv of Ankara University, with the apparent endorsement of the Turkish government, has contended that the Armenian quote does not appear in Nuremberg documents and is a forgery. He goes further to assert that no Armenian genocide took place, that Armenians had collaborated with the Nazis, and that Turks had welcomed Jews.[19]

Similarly, Princeton University professor Heath Lowry suggested in 1985 that the lack of clear evidence that Hitler's alleged statement about the Armenians was "authentic" should have put an end to attempts to recognize the Armenian genocide in exhibits of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, resolutions of the U.S. Congress, or in the curricula on the Holocaust established by state boards of education. The logical outcome, Lowry argued, was that the Armenian genocide was simply a type of "propaganda" and "vilification against the Republic of Turkey."[20] Finally, Guenter Lewy, professor emeritus of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, has contended that any attempt to link the anti-Armenian massacres and the Holocaust rests "on a shaky factual foundation." But Lewy has conceded that the document containing Hitler's statement about the Armenians might "represent an embellishment of points made in the speech" by Hitler to his generals in August 1939.[21]

In contrast, in a notable 1995 article in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Roger W. Smith, Eric Markusen, and Robert Lifton argued that Lowry was being professionally irresponsible in claiming that the Armenian genocide was simply a "ludicrous" Armenian claim. In their view, it was the more recent claim that Hitler did not refer to the Armenian genocide that lacked an evidentiary basis.[22]Moreover, they demonstrate that Lowry, like historian Justin McCarthy, had engaged in a pattern of protesting academic characterizations of the Armenian genocide that was welcomed by the Turkish government.[23] According to Inside Higher Education, McCarthy once called the Armenian genocide a "meaningless" idea and served on the board of a grant-making organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute for Turkish Studies, which has ties to the Turkish government. McCarthy argues that the Armenian case is dissimilar to the Holocaust and resembles the U.S. Civil War.[24]

One of Lewy's preferred sources for Hitler's speech were the copies from the OKW, used by Nuremberg prosecutors to demonstrate command responsibility for numerous crimes in Poland. Lewy has argued that Hitler's statement about the Armenians was not "accepted as evidence by the Nuremberg Tribunal," citing Lowry to this effect.[25] Ankara University's Ataöv similarly asserted: "Hundreds of thousands of captured Nazi documents were assembled as evidence in the trial of the major Nazi war criminals. One cannot find the oft-repeated Hitler 'statement' among these documents."[26] The idea that the Hitler quote is a forgery and that it does not appear in the Nuremberg trial documents is frequently repeated on websites dedicated to denial of the Armenian genocide.

While the Lochner document was not used at Nuremberg, even Lowry admits that volume VII of the compilation of evidence against the Nazis, entitled Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, reproduced the statement.[27] That compilation contained in its introduction a description of the document series as the tribunal's "documentary evidence demonstrating the criminality of the former leaders of the German Reich."[28] This means that the document was introduced as evidence before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg even if it was not used on a specific day of the trials. The Lochner document with the Armenia quote was also included in the 1961 publication of foreign policy documents by the German Foreign Office.[29]

The Armenian Genocide as Nazi Precedent

As part of a larger effort to deny or downplay the Armenian genocide, some historians have claimed that Hitler did not cite the Armenians as an example of the impunity of perpetrators. They have also denied that the Armenian genocide provided the inspiration or any form of precedent for the design and conduct of Nazi aggression and genocide.

One method has been to suggest that the Nazi program of extermination was a late creation. Thus, for example, Lewy suggested that Hitler did not order exterminations in Poland—or mention the extermination of the Armenians—because "by August 1939, Hitler had not yet decided upon the destruction of the Jews."[30]

This argument is unpersuasive for several reasons. First, as has been shown, there are compelling reasons to believe that Hitler's statements about extermination in 1939 indeed cited the Armenians and were aimed at the Poles. Hitler's intentions toward the Jews had been spelled out across many statements, including in the notorious January 1939 speech in which Hitler "prophesied" that another world war would result in the "annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe." Second, Hitler had repeatedly engaged in virulent anti-Polish and anti-Slavic rhetoric prior to August 1939.[31] Third, Hitler's decision to destroy Poland as a nation, while allowing some Poles to survive, was entirely consistent with his political philosophy that nations played out a chaotic struggle for life in an unforgiving world, as shown by history. Finally, there was the tacit acquiescence of the major powers in the Turkish model of ethnic cleansing and genocide. These may have provided Hitler with reasons to adopt it for Poland and the East.

To what extent was the Armenian genocide understood as a model by Hitler? In a 1931 interview, he told a German newspaper editor that when deciding Germany's future, one should "[t]hink of the biblical deportations and the massacres of the Middle Ages (Rosenberg refers to them) and remember the extermination of the Armenians."[32] Hitler and other contemporary European leaders admired Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as a national leader who won for the Turkish people the living space it needed from the Slavs and the British. Speaking in 1925, Hitler "dwelt at length on patriotism and national pride and quoted approvingly the role of Kemal Atatürk of Turkey and the example of Mussolini, who had marched on Rome" a few weeks prior.[33]

The parallels between Hitler and Atatürk were also noted at the time. The influential Foreign Affairsjournal published an article in the 1930s stating, "Just as in Italy since 1922, and as in Germany since early in the present year, the conduct of political affairs in Turkey rests today on the personality of a leader. … By means of a clever scheme … the President, while constitutionally without undue influence, becomes the real autocrat.'" It argued that with the end of foreign "influence," Turkey "had become an almost homogeneous state" in "national and religious" terms, so that its "Christian minorities hardly existed any longer."[34] In early 1939, the German socialists had also pointed out the similarity between the Nazis and past leaders of Turkey.[35] Three days after the speech reported by Canaris, Hitler wrote to Mussolini that he hoped that the Turks could be persuaded to join Italy, Japan, and Russia in an anti-British coalition.[36] He planned to hand over parts of the southern Soviet Union to Turkey in due time.[37]

The fate of the Armenians was also understood within Nazi ideology. A key influence on Hitler was the Prussian-educated British writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain. His work Foundations of the Nineteenth Century sold 250,000 copies by 1938 and secured his fame in Germany.[38] Volume 1 of this work offered a model for Germany, arguing that Turkey was "the last little corner of Europe in which a whole people lives in undisturbed prosperity and happiness," and blaming non-German world powers (Britain and France) for encouraging an Armenian rebellion, in response to which "the otherwise humane Moslem rises and destroys the disturber of the peace."[39]

In 1927, leading Nazi theorist Alfred Rosenberg had published a booklet calling Chamberlain the "apostle and founder of a German future."[40] In 1938, Rosenberg published a collection of speeches in which he commented that in 1921, after the Turkish minister Talat Pasha was murdered in Berlin by an Armenian, a campaign was waged in the "international press" to release the killer due to the history of struggle between Armenians and Turks.[41] Rosenberg endorsed the Turks' resistance to Armenian claims for autonomy ("den armenischen Staat im Staat"), comparing the Armenians to the Jews, because he claimed the Armenians engaged in espionage against Turkey as the Jews did against Germany.[42] He "praised Talat Pasha … [and] minimized the [Ottoman Christian] genocide."[43]

Rosenberg also introduced Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter to Hitler. Scheubner-Richter had been the German vice-consul in Erzerum and documented the planning and implementation of the murder of Armenians by the Young Turks in the name of Islam and pan-Turkic ideology. Scheubner-Richter's relationship to Hitler was so close that he was killed standing next to Hitler and Rosenberg during the failed Munich "Beer Hall" putsch of 1923. Hitler then dedicated the first part of Mein Kampf to his "irreplaceable" fallen comrade.[44] Armenian-American historian Vahkan Dadrian has argued that Scheubner-Richter had a "direct" influence on Hitler that may have included introducing him to the example of how the Ottoman Armenians (then called the "Jews of the Orient") were deported from their villages, worked to death, starved, and frozen to death during exposure to harsh winter conditions.[45] Mike Joseph has called Scheubner-Richter the "personal link from [the Armenian] genocide to Hitler."[46] Scheubner-Richter's reports regarding the genocidal solution to the Armenian question foreshadow and may have inspired Hitler's later ideas and rhetoric regarding the Jews as did his descriptions of Turkish methods, including provocations and allegations of terrorism and revolution. Prior to his death, Scheubner-Richter urged that Germany be "cleansed" of alien peoples by "ruthless" measures.[47]

Other high-ranking Nazis were also well-placed to learn how the Armenian genocide occurred and to inform Hitler. Franz von Papen became Hitler's vice chancellor after serving as chief of staff of the Fourth Turkish Army during World War I and was responsible for managing German-Austrian and German-Turkish relations under the Nazis. Rudolf Hess, deputy inspector of concentration camps under Himmler, had served in the Ottoman-German forces fighting the Russians during World War I. Hans von Seeckt was chief of the Ottoman General Staff in 1917 and 1918 and "laid the groundwork for the later emergence of the Third Reich's Wehrmacht" and "embraced Hitler and his ideology."[48]

The similarity of the genocidal methods employed by the Nazis and the Ottomans is also inescapable. Parallels between Ottoman and Nazi theory and practice include the central place of race in the self-conception of the fascist elites and the notion of relocating ethnic minorities to reservations. Hitler often expressed his belief that race was the dominant independent variable in history and that it had to be dealt with directly by any ethnonationalist leader who wanted to be successful.[49] "When the race is in danger of being oppressed," he wrote, "the question of legality plays only a secondary role."[50]

Both the Ottomans and the Nazis also used the concept of ethnic "cleaning" or "cleansing." While the Young Turks implemented a "clean sweep of internal enemies—the indigenous Christians," according to the then-German ambassador in Constantinople,[51] the Nazis implemented a "housecleaning of Jews, intelligentsia, clergy, and the nobility."[52] The official who announced the ethnic cleansing plan for Poland may have been aware of similar policies of the internal security officials of the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in "hundreds of thousands of the Ottoman Empire's Muslims, Christian Armenians, and Orthodox Greeks [being] expelled or murdered."[53] Hitler himself used "cleaning" or "cleansing" as a euphemism for extermination[54] and described his rule as being characterized by an "unheard of cleansing process."[55] On December 12, 1941, Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary that "with respect of the Jewish question, the Führer has decided to make a clean sweep."[56] Finally, the impunity with which the Armenians had been slaughtered—the essence of Hitler's August 22, 1939 remark—was reinforced by the international community's failure to prevent the massacre of other peoples, including later massacres by the Italians using poison-gas and machine-guns in Ethiopia.[57]


Numerous ideological and political influences led from the Armenian genocide to the rape of Poland and the Holocaust. Chamberlain, Hess, Rosenberg, Seeckt, Scheubner-Richter, and von Papen all likely played a role in prompting Hitler to use Turkey's example as a model for Poland. Hitler compared the two cases in his 1939 speech, which, like most evidence that the Holocaust took place, was not relied upon in the tribunal's judgment.[58] Subsequent efforts to discredit the speech by defenders of the Ottoman Empire should not, however, blind us to the manifold connections between the Armenian genocide and that perpetrated by the Nazis.

Hannibal Travis is the author of Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan (Carolina Academic Press, 2010) and "The Assyrian Genocide: A Tale of Oblivion and Denial," in Rene Lemarchand, ed., Forgotten Genocides: Denial, Oblivion, and Memory(University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

[1] Adam Jones, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 149.
[2] Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik 1918-1945, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office, ser. D, vol. 7, 1961, p. 193, fn. 1; Louis P. Lochner, What about Germany? (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1943), p. 12.
[3] Jones, Genocide, p. 173.
[4] Heath W. Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," Political Communication and Persuasion, 3, 1985, pp. 111-39.
[5] Vahakn Dadrian, "The Armenian Genocide in German and Austrian Sources," in Israel Charny, ed.,The Widening Circle of Genocide, vol. 3 (New Brunswick: Transaction, 1994), pp. 122-4.
[6] Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 7, U.S. Chief Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality (Washington, D.C.: Govt. Printing Office, 1946), p. 753.
[7] Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," pp. 113-4, 121.
[8] Lochner, What About Germany? pp. 11-2.
[9] Kevork B. Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide (Toronto: Zoryan Institute, 1985), pp. 14-5, 18.
[10] Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," p. 116.
[11] Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, pp. 20-3; idem, "Hitler's 'Armenian Extermination' Remark, True or False?" The New York Times, July 6, 1985.
[12] Vahakn Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust: From Impunity to Retributive Justice," The Yale Journal of International Law, 23 (1998): 539-40; Allan Bullock, Walter Schellenberg, The Labyrinth: Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's Chief of Counterintelligence (New York: Harper and Bros., 2000), pp. x-xi, 353, 359-60; Joachim Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of German Resistance, Bruce Little, trans. (New York: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt, 1997), p. 5.
[13] Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, pp. 20-1.
[14] Ibid., pp. 20-3; Bardakjian, "Hitler's 'Armenian Extermination' Remark, True or False?"; Helen Fein, "Political Functions of Genocide Comparisons," in Yehuda Bauer, Alice Eckardt, and Franklin H. Littell, eds., Remembering for the Future: Working Papers and Addenda, vol. 3 (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1989), p. 2432.
[15] Winfried Baumgart, "Zur Ansprache Hitler's vor den Führern der Wehrmacht am 22. August 1939. Eine quellenkritische Untersuchung," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Apr. 1968, pp. 120-49.
[16] Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, p. 110.
[17] John H. Waller, The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War(London: I.B. Tauris, 1996), pp. 237, 357.
[18] Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, p. 22; Michael Mueller and Geoffrey Brooks, Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2007), pp. 208, 245-57.
[19] Türkkaya Ataöv, "The 'Armenian Question': Conflict, Trauma and Objectivity," Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Center for Strategic Research, Republic of Turkey, SAM Papers, no. 3 / 97 (1999), accessed Jan. 5, 2012.
[20] Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," pp. 123-4.
[21] Guenter Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2005), p. 265.
[22] Roger W. Smith, Eric Markusen, and Robert Jay Lifton, "Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide," Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Spring 1995, pp. 9, 12.
[23] Ibid., pp. 9-10.
[24] Scott Jaschik, "Genocide Deniers," Inside Higher Education, Oct. 16, 2007.
[25] Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265; Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," p. 120.
[26] Ataöv, "The 'Armenian Question,'" accessed Jan. 5, 2012.
[27] Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," Appendix II.
[28] Roger W. Barrett and William E. Jackson, "Preface," in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 1,Nuremberg Commission, Jan. 20, 1946.
[29] Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik, p. 193, fn. 1.
[30] Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265.
[31] Richard Veatch, "Minorities and the League of Nations," in United Nations Library, ed., The League of Nations in Retrospect (Boston-New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1983), p. 380; Otto Tolischus, "German Army Attacks Poland," in Douglas Brinkley, ed., The New York Times Living History: World War II, 1939-1942: The Axis Assault (New York: Macmillan, 2003), p. 82; Henrik Eberle and Matthias Uhl, eds., The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides(Jackson, Tenn.: Public Affairs, 2006), pp. 47-8; William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), pp. 872, 875.
[32] Richard Breiting, Secret Conversations with Hitler: The Two Newly-discovered 1931 Interviews,Édouard Calic, ed. (New York: John Day, 1971), p. 81; Édouard Calic, Unmasked: Two Confidential Interviews with Hitler in 1931, Richard Barry, trans. (London: John Day, 1971), p. 81; Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," p. 540.
[33] Martyn Housden, Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary‎ (New York: Psychology Press, 2000), p. 47.
[34] Hans Kohn, "Ten Years of the Turkish Republic," Foreign Affairs, Oct. 1933, pp. 143, 145.
[35] Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 129.
[36] Hitler to Mussolini, Aug. 25, 1939, in Max Domarus, ed., Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations 1932-1945: The Chronicle of a Dictatorship, vol. 3 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996), p. 1689.
[37] Robert Gellately, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (New York: Random House, 2009), p. 422.
[38] Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pp. 152, 156.
[39] Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, John Lees, trans. (London: J. Lane, 1911), pp. 6-7.
[40] Fritz Nova, Alfred Rosenberg: Nazi Theorist of the Holocaust (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1986), p. 12.
[41] Alfred Rosenberg, Kampf um die Macht: Aufsätze von 1921-1932, Thilo von Trotha, ed. (Munich: F. Eher nachf., 1943), p. 435.
[42] Ibid., p. 436.
[43] Tessa Hofmann, "An Eye for an Eye: The Assassination of Talaat Pasha on the Hardenbergstrasse in Berlin," in Huberta von Voss, ed., Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World, Alasdair Lean, trans. (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), p. 295.
[44] Jay W. Baird, To Die for Germany: Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), p. 46.
[45] Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," pp. 534-7.
[46] Mike Joseph, "Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter: The Personal Link from Genocide to Hitler," in Hans-Lukas Kieser and Elmar Plozza, eds., Der Völkermord an Den Armeniern, Die Türkei und Europa(Zurich: Chronos, 2006), pp. 147, 198.
[47] Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," pp. 535-6.
[48] Dadrian, "Documentation of the Armenian Genocide," p. 107; idem, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," pp. 533-6.
[49] Domarus, Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations 1932-1945, vol. 3, pp. 2618, 2748-9, 2593, 2717-8, 2764, 2774, 3130, 3260; Adolf Hitler, My Struggle (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1938), pp. 152-85.
[50] Albert Camus, "State Terrorism and Irrational Terror," in Roger Griffin and Matthew Feldman, eds.,Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science (London: Routledge, 2004), p. 16.
[51] German Ambassador in Constantinople, Wangenheim, to the German Imperial Chancellor, Bethmann Hollweg, DE/PA-AA/R14086, DuA Dok. 081 (gk.), June 16, 1915, in Wolfgang and Sigrid Gust, eds., A Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in World War I (n.p., 1995-2012); Richard Hovannisian, "Introduction: History, Politics, Ethics," in Richard Hovannisian, ed., The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), pp. xi-xii.
[52] Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 874.
[53] Robert Gerwarth, Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), p. 151.
[54] M. Cherif Bassiouni, "From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court," Harvard Human Rights Journal, Spring 1997, p. 21.
[55] Norman Hepburn Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, vol. 1 (New York: H. Fertig, 1969), pp. 1115-6.
[56] Die Zeit (Hamburg), Jan. 9, 1998; Richard Weikart, Hitler's Ethic: The Nazi Pursuit of Evolutionary Progress (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p. 193.
[57] George Baer, Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1976), pp. 66, 92-3, 170, 183, 199-214, 274, 281, 290-6; A.J. Barker, The Rape of Ethiopia, 2nd ed. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1971), pp. 106-29; Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War, 1935-1941, P.D. Cummins, trans. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 78-84, 109, 120; John W. Turner, "Mussolini's Invasion and the Italian Occupation," in A Country Study: Ethiopia (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1991), call no. DT373 .E83 1993.
[58] Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265.

Related Topics:  Antisemitism, History, Turkey and Turks  |  Winter 2013 MEQreceive the latest by email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.


It is clear that there was genocides. 

It is clear that Doctors were heavily involved in the Turkish/Islamic murdering.

It is clear that Germany was deeply involved enabling parts of the genocide.

It is clear that the German military was part of the genocide enabling.

It is clear that Turkey feels no guilt and will not label their mass murders as genocide or even exknowledge their mass murders!


Much of the discourse of fact fails to recognize the teaching of the Koran in the background. The Turkish may have used Lying (Taqiyya and Kitman) to not scare off the Germans till they had no need of them.

It is time that we help Muslims get free of the theocratic, world domination murdering cult based on the Koran by saying the truth and stop the indoctrination of children to be robotic murders and suicide murders by memorizing the Koran.

 “Allahu akbar” five times during his sentencing, and said that Muslims were “proud to kill in the name of God, and that is what God told us to do in the Quran.”[146] 

It would be nice if our leaders stopped lying and saying Islam is a religion of peace!