On February 25, 1915, the famous "Directive 8682" was issued and distributed secretly in the form of a ciphered cable. The directive was
received by the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Armies; the Iraq Command: I, II, III, IV, V Army Corps: and to the Jandarma Command, where the Armenian
population was dominant. The title of the directive was "Increased Security Precautions". The directive began with summarising dissident Armenian
activity in Bitlis, Aleppo, Dortyol, and Kayseri. The
directive stated that the Russians and French had influence on activities in these areas.
Finally, the directive ordered any ethnic Armenian soldiers should be removed from headquarters staff and taken out of command centers.
From February through July 1915, a great many additional reports from provincial officials and lower level army units reinforced the pattern of allied
intelligence gathering of Ottoman military activities. The
Ministry of the Interior’s Intelligence Division noted that the Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople was transmitting military secrets and dispositions
to the Russians. It was
believed at this time that a seventy-year-old priest was leading Armenians
On March 25, Hunchaks of the city
Zeitun begun the second Zeitun Resistance.
In April, around 30,000 Armenians in the city of Van, in addition to the Armenians from surrounding villages, defended themselves during the Siege of Van.
The biggest achievement was the establishment of the Administration for Western Armenia with the Aram Manukian at the head. Armenian forces kept the Ottomans out by at the cost of thousands of
civilians killed. The initial armed resistance lasted for a period of less than a month. In May, the Armenian volunteer units and Russian Caucasus Army entered the city and successfully drove
the Ottoman army out of Van.
On May 27, hundreds of Armenians were captured by Ottoman authorities in Urfa after the Urfa Resistance. At Urfa the Armenians repulsed the attacks of one division, but finally fell under
heavy fire from artillery commanded by German officers. The Armenians destroyed all their property so that it would not fall into the hands of the Ottomans
In July, the resistance of Mourat and his comrades occurred at Sivas. When deportations were ordered gendarmes were sent to capture Mourat, Mourat
defended himself with his compatriots for a year and a half. On June
15, the Ottoman government hanged the The Twenty Martyrs.
Armenians resisted for a month with Shabin-Karahisar
uprising until Neshed Pasha left Sivas with three regiments and artillery
to subdue them.
On August 19, Armenian defended the city of Van for a second time until the arrival of Russian army with Andranik Ozanian lifted the siege.
The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks,
Pontian and Anatolian Greeks were victims of a broader Turkish genocidal project aimed at all Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire. A total
of more than 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians were killed under the successive regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal from roughly
1914 to 1923. Of this, as many as 1.5 million Greeks may have died. The end of the genocide marked a profound rupture in the long Greek historical
presence on the Asia Minor.
Map courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Greek communities began inhabiting Anatolia (Greek for “east”), otherwise referred to as the Asia Minor, since the 12th century BCE. They
centered mostly along the Aegean littoral, although some Greeks, known as Pontians, went further east and colonized the southern shores of the Black
Sea. Turkic peoples migrated into Anatolia over the first millennium CE and by the 14th century had established the Ottoman Empire. Over the next six
hundred years, the Empire organized its ethnically diverse population into the millet system, thereby ensuring cultural and religious pluralism. Under
this system, the Ottoman Greeks, like other Christian communities in the Empire, were provided with a degree of autonomy.
The geographic extent and political power of the Ottoman Empire began to decline over the 19th century as subjected peoples, especially the
Greeks, began exerting their own nationalist aspirations. With the support of the Great Powers, the Greeks successfully overthrew Ottoman rule during
their War of Independence from 1821 to 1830, thereby establishing the modern Greek state as it is currently situated at the tip of the Balkan Peninsula.
However, the over two and a half million ethnic Greeks still living in Anatolia, separated from their Balkan compatriots, suffered the scorn of an
increasingly vitriolic Turkish nationalism tainted by a bitter sense of humiliation. The Young Turk movement emerged from this context, eventually
aiming to turn the multiethnic Ottoman Empire into a homogenous Turkish nation state. Under the banner of the Committee for the Union of Progress (CUP),
this ethnic nationalist movement assumed power after a coup d’état in 1913.
This political revolution occurred in the midst of the Balkan Wars from October 1912 to July 1913, which ultimately ended five centuries of
Ottoman rule in the Balkans. Afterwards, there was a brief diplomatic effort between the Greeks and the CUP to arrange a population exchange. However,
the outbreak of World War I stunted this effort, and instead the CUP took its own radical initiatives. They began singling out all able-bodied Greek
men, forcibly conscripting them into labor battalions which performed slave labor for the Turkish war effort. Greek children were stolen and forcibly
assimilated into Turkish society. Greek villages were brutally plundered and terrorized under the pretext of internal security. Indeed, as with the
Armenians, the Greeks were generally accused as a disloyal and traitorous “fifth-column,” and eventually most of the population was rounded up and
forcibly deported to the interior. This modus operadi was more or less the same for all three Christian victim groups.
Greek men in Smyrna guarded by Turkish troops for deportation to the interior (September
1922); courtesy of Greek-Genocide.org
Again with support of the Great Powers, Greece invaded part of Anatolia immediately after the defeat of the Ottomans in World War I. Centered
around the Aegean port city of Smyrna (now known by its Turkish name, ?zmir), Greek occupation forces brutally subjected local Turks, thereby further
stoking interethnic conflagrations. At the same time, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was leading a Turkish resurgence, eventually dispelling the Greek military
from Anatolia. Turkish forces retook Smyrna in September 1922, instigating a massive anti-Greek pogrom. On September 13, a fire broke out amidst the
chaos, spreading uncontrollably over the next two weeks. The Smyrna catastrophe took the lives of somewhere between 10,000 to 15,000 Greeks. Two months
later, diplomatic negotiations between the Kemalist regime and the Great Powers began in Switzerland, leading to the signing of the Treat of Lausanne in
February 1923. The sovereign status of a Turkish nation state was thereby affirmed, and the Great Powers essentially condoned the Turkish genocidal
The demographic consequences of the Greek genocide are not objectively certain. The prewar population of Greeks was at least 2.5 million. Over the
course of 1914 to 1923, about one million had migrated, some voluntarily but most under coercion. As many as 1.5 million Greeks died, either from
massacre or exposure, although this figure is not positive. Presently, a miniscule Greek population remains in Turkey. Greek communities annually
commemorate the genocide on September 14 in recognition of the Smyrna catastrophe.
PSYCHIATRISTS: THE MEN BEHIND HITLER
by Karl Loren
GSPN: German Society for Psychiatrists and Neurologists which had changed its name in 1955 from the German Society of Neurologists and Psychiatrists,
started in 1935.
Sterilization Act, 1933: the law that cleared the path for wholesale euthanasia in Germany. The estimated number of sterilizations was between 100,000
WPA: World Psychiatric Association
WFMH: World Federation of Mental Health
T4: This is the name and number of a street in Berlin, Tiergartenstrasse 4, where the Working Association of Sanitariums and Caretaking Facilities of
the Republic (Reichsarbeitgemeinschaft Heil-und Pflegeanstalten) was located. The organization's sole purpose was to gather and kill "inferiors."
T4 was, in fact, the nerve center of the extermination campaign and was not just the forerunner of the ensuing mass extermination of the Jews, Gypsies,
Poles and other human beings "unworthy of life." T4 was actually the organizer, education center and spiritual and administrative focal point that
would continue in its criminal activity for another six years.
Questionnaires from state and private sanitariums and caretaking institutes poured into the T4 euthanasia headquarters. Consultants then marked the
form: those who were to be killed had a red "+" sign, and those allowed to live were marked with a blue "-" sign.
They "did no examinations, had no access to medical histories, and made their decision solely on the basis of the questionnaire." However,
Jewish inmates did not have to fit the normal criteria used for normal medical killing.
By August 1941, T4 had already reached its original quota of 70,000 persons euthanized. Indeed, it had exceeded its quota--by 273 persons.
The psychiatrists involved in the Nazi killing machine were needed for their leadership skills and chosen for their closeness to the Nazi regime,
their high recognition in the profession and their sympathy for euthanasia, or at the very least a radical approach to eugenics.
ERNST RÜDIN: PRESIDENT OF GSPN FROM 1935 TO 1945
In 1916, Ernst Rüdin was appointed Professor of Psychiatry of the Department of
Genealogy of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and in 1919 became its director. In 1933, he was promoted within the Third Reich to
Commissioner of the German Society for Racial Hygiene and named Chairman of the Advisory Board of experts on population and racial politics.
Besides being a racial hygienist and the principal drafter of the Sterilization Act he was also the co-author of the treatise which was relied upon as
the Nazi's justification for the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Children. His co-author, Falk Ruttke, was also the author of the Nuremberg
Race Act, which legalized the persecution of Jews.
It is difficult to overstate Rüdin's influence on the Third Reich's atrocities. He was able to become a significant source of legitimization for the
Nazi regime's racial policies and through him, psychiatry enjoyed what amounted to carte blanche to research, develop and even practice its most deadly and
inhumane theories and methods.
In 1937, he joined the Nazi Party and two years later was awarded the Goethe Medal for Art and Science by Adolf Hitler himself. Five years later, the
Fuhrer personally honored Rüdin with a bronze medal embossed with a swastika and with the honorary title of "Pioneer of Racial Hygiene."
In 1943, he wrote of Hitler, extolling him and the Regime for their "decisive...path-breaking step toward making racial hygiene a fact among the
German people...and inhibiting the propagation of the congenitally ill and inferior." He praised the laws for "preventing the further penetration
of the German gene pool with Jewish blood," and the SS for "its ultimate goal, the creation of a special group of medically superior and healthy
people of the German Nordic type."
Rüdin was removed from his directorship in November of 1945 by the American military government, but he was never brought to trial. He claimed to be
"only a nominal member" of the Nazis and with that managed to be completely exonerated. He is one of the most outrageous examples of psychiatrists
who neither fled nor hid. They just acted as if nothing had happened.
Leonardo Conti, State Secretary of the Ministry of Interior, Member of the SS:
In July, 1939, Hitler appointed Conti responsible for administering the euthanasia program. On October 9, 1939, an edict was issued requiring all
institutions throughout the Third Reich to categorize all of their patients and inmates according to stated criteria. Conti required reports to be compiled
and submitted on all those in care or custody who suffered from a variety of stated symptoms, among them: schizophrenia, epilepsy, senility, paralytic
diseases, and feeble-mindedness. Also to be reported were all persons who had been imprisoned for five years or more or who were "criminal" or
"not of German or related species' blood."
In 1940, Conti personally administered lethal injections to four to six patients who "died only slowly" and some had to be injected a second
time. Consequently, the gas chambers were considered a better killing alternative.
Conti, who remained Minister of Health until 1945, committed suicide, avoiding justice.
Werner Heyde: T4 DIRECTOR, Member of the Nazi Party and Gestapo
In 1933, Heyde was one of the chief organizers of the euthanasia program. He released a
mental patient, Theodor Eicke, a hardened convicted felon, as no longer dangerous. Later, Eicke became the first commandant of Dachau and in 1934 was
promoted to Inspector General and Chief of all concentration camps. By 1936, Eicke had become the leader of the SS "Deathhead" units of which
Heyde was also a member.
Heyde joined the Nazi party in 1933, then joined and became an advisor to the Gestapo. By 1935 had become an Associate Judge of the Court for the
Elimination of Hereditary Disease which arbitrated sterilization requests. On July 1, 1936, Heyde was appointed to establish and direct "the
psychiatric-neurological and genetic surveillance of the concentration camps." In January, 1940, he oversaw the first killings which used carbon
monoxide gas. Eighteen to twenty naked men were led into the "shower room" by nursing staff. The door was shut behind them--they collapsed within
one minute. After another five minutes the room was aired. SS personnel took the dead on special stretchers to the crematorium furnaces. The victims did not
undergo any medical examination to determine if they were dead before they were cremated. The apparent "success" of this test killing hastened the
production of killing facilities.
Later Heyde moved to Berlin to become T4's medical director and to supervise it's consulting staff of approximately 30 physicians, most of whom were
Heyde was eventually arrested in 1947 by the allies but fled and managed to resume his work as a psychiatrist under the alias of "Dr. Sawade."
He became active as a psychiatric consultant in the Courts of the Schleswig-Holstein district of Germany, "even though numerous professors, the
Director of the Social Court, the Chief Justice of the provincial Social Court, a district court counselor, a Social Court counselor, two presidents of the
Senate and even a federal judge all knew that Professor Heyde was also Dr. Sawade."
Heyde was re-arrested but in 1961 committed suicide in his cell, before his trial could begin.
Professor Paul Nitsche: Head of T4.
Starting in April of 1941, eminent physicians and psychiatrists began to visit the concentration camps, among them Dr. Werner Heyde and Nitsche, the
leading T4 consultants. Nitsche, who replaced Heyde as head of the T4, later admitted that "the killing... went along the exact same lines and with the
same registration forms as in the insane asylums."
He was also editor of the German Journal for Mental Hygiene and was director of various state hospitals.
Ordered to be executed by judges in the Nuremberg Trials, he was sent to the guillotine on March 25, 1948, in Dresden.
Max de Crinis: T4 Nazi psychiatrist, MEMBER OF THE SS.
An Austrian, he practiced in Germany and joined the Nazi Party in 1931. He was considered "the most outspoken and influential Nazi" within
German psychiatry and was a psychiatric consultant at the highest level of the regime. He was thought to have provided Hitler with the wording for the
original "euthanasia" decree.
By 1936, he was active in the SS and its Race and Settlement Office; he became medical director of the Ministry of Education in 1941. He was also
Committee Member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (which became the Max Planck Institute involved in psychiatric research) and was a Director of the European
League for Mental Hygiene.
While fleeing from the authorities and justice, on May 1, 1945, De Crinis killed himself in the prescribed Nazi manner, by swallowing potassium
cyanide but not before he also caused the deaths of his family in the same way.
IMFRIED EBERL: T4 Nazi Psychiatrist, MEMBER OF THE NAZI PARTY
Eberl served as a deputy to Dr. Werner Heyde in supervising the false causes of death and to establish policies for maintaining subterfuge for T4.
An Austrian, he joined the Nazi Party when he was 21-years-old. At 29, he was one of the first to be shown how the poison gas killing methodology
worked. In addition to serving in the inner circle of psychiatric experts, he was given special authority to enter various psychiatric institutions to
investigate their attitudes towards, and willingness to work in the euthanasia killing program.
At age 32, he went on to become commandant of the notorious death camp, Treblinka, where, with his T4 experience, he was able to construct the gassing
apparatus for killing inmates.
He also organized the transporting of Jewish patients to his killing institution at Brandenburg. In August, 1942 alone, he had 215,000 Jews killed
(compared to 18,000 patients killed in just over 18 months when he was a T4 expert).
Carl Schneider, T4 psychiatrist, MEMBER OF THE NAZI PARTY
An Austrian, he became director of the University Clinic in Heidelberg. He joined the Nazi Party in 1932 and became a "leader of German
psychiatry," who "took on the mission of preaching National Socialism and offering his own enlightened program of work therapy ..."
"Work therapy," sterilization and medical killing were his proffered ways of "helping" patients. He obtained large sums of money
for a research institute where he initiated some of his work, using the brains from the euthanasia program.
At the Rhenish Eichberg Institute in the Rhinegau, which conducted one of the euthanasia programs, human experiments with medical drugs were performed
on behalf of I. G. Farben, the chemical manufacturer, which provided carbon monoxide for the gas chambers of concentration camps and the pesticide Zyklon B
for experiments on Soviet prisoners of war. At this institute, both children and adults were killed on a regular basis until the end of the war. An argument
over the brains of these victims erupted between the Eichberg and Heidelberg research departments. Professor Schneider in Heidelberg demanded part of the
so-called "material" for his own research.
Schneider was a member of the T4 team. He was executed as a result of the Nuremberg Trials.
Professor Hans Heinze: T4 Nazi psychiatrist; headed the pediatric department of a killing Institute, Laender.
Heinze gained prominence in the Reich's "Committee for the Scientific Registration of Hereditary and Inherent Sufferings," the "cover
organization for the murder of handicapped children and youth." The committee was affiliated with T4. The only difference was that it was responsible
for child euthanasia.
In 1931, while Dr. Heinze was a physician at the children's outpatient department at Leipzig, he collaborated with Paul Schroder on a book called
Child Personalities and Their Abnormalities. In the first paragraph of the introduction, they define what they mean by the word "degenerate": It
"is not equal to 'sick'. 'Degenerate' also includes the oversized or undersized person, the athlete, the highly talented, the genius. A degenerate in
the psychological area is someone who...deviates above and below the average."
Heinze was dedicated to defining, segregating and exterminating certain classes of people, following the dictates of the state economy, Nazi doctrine
and the precepts of "racial hygiene psychiatry."
In 1939, Heinze, a director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (see Max Planck Institute), was bestowed with the unusual honor of a seat on its Board of
Trustees of their Brain Research Institute, and it is extremely likely that a child-killing department was installed there.
By 1940, Leander Institute at Brandenburg-Gorden, where Heize was head of its pediatric department, was functioning as a halfway house for T4
"supply transports." Some of the sanitarium's children were sent to the gas chambers of the former prison at Brandenburg, after which their
corpses were dissected for psychiatric research.
The institution was also used as training center for other physicians in charge of killing facilities and was referred to as the "Reich's
Sentenced to Hard Labor: Then Mentally Unfit to Stand Trial
Heinze was tried and convicted in 1946 by a Russian military tribunal which sentenced him to seven years' hard labor. He served his term in various
prisons until 1952, whereupon he returned to Germany, and became an assistant physician at a sanitarium near Munster in Westphalia.
In 1962, a preliminary inquiry into Heinze's wartime activities was begun, but several medical opinions certified him as unfit to be questioned and
unable to understand the proceedings. In 1967, he was deemed unfit to stand trial because he was a "mental wreck."
When he died, nearly two decades later, the following obituary appeared: "At the age of 87, the former director of our department for child and
adolescent psychiatry died on February 4, 1983...We shall honor his memory"--signed by The Board of Directors and the Director of Human Resources of
the Neiders state hospital of Lower Saxony, Wunstdorf.
DR. VALENTIN FALTLHAUSER, T4 EXPERT
Director of Kaufbeuren psychiatric hospital and its Child Euthanasia program. Faltlhauser passed around a menu at the facility: "totally fat
free," it consisted of potatoes, yellow turnips, and cabbage cooked in water. "The effect," he claimed, "should be a slow death, which
would ensue in about three months."
On May 8, 1945, the war ended in Germany. In the extermination institutes, they either kept on killing, or let the patients starve to death. As late
as May 29, 1945, a four-year-old feeble-minded boy was murdered in Kaufbeuren, and on July 2, 1945, a physician who was junior to the director, hanged
himself--Only 12 hours earlier, the last adult patient had died.
Berthold Kihn of Jena: T4 psychiatrist: Kihn filled out "questionnaires" and personally supervised the selection of "patients" in
various institutions. Erich Straub: He was a T4 consultant. Dr. Ernst Wentzler: One of the three chief experts of the child euthanasia Reich Committee.
Dr. Hermann Pfannmüller of Eglfing-Haar (camp):
Dr. Pfannmüller joined the Nazi party in May, 1933. He believed strongly in the concept of "life devoid of value," which demanded the
eliminated of what he called "the pitiful patient" who showed "the semblance of being of a human existence."
Pfannmüller was the director of the institution, Eglfing-Haar, for children. He developed a special starvation diet as a method of killing
"useless eaters," especially children. In 1939, Pfannmüller explained to visiting psychology students the euthanasia or mercy killing that was
being conducted--some 25 children, aged between one and five were being starved to death. Pfannmuller lifted up one emaciated child who was near death and
told the students that food was withdrawn gradually, not all
at once. The motto was: "We give them no fat, then they go on their own."
In 1943, he established two more "starvation houses," this time for an adult population. Some 444 patients died directly or indirectly
(contracting pneumonia while malnutritioned) from his diet.
In a report on an interview with him for the Nuremberg Trials, Pfannmüller was described as "a brutal fellow who actually enjoyed to dispatch
patients to their death...[was] mostly directly responsible" for the killings at the Eglfing-Haar asylum.
Pfannmuller testified at the Nuremberg trials, "...euthanasia and the work of the National Board had, in my view, nothing to do with National
Socialism. They were just as legal as the regulations for prevention of transmission of hereditary diseases and infection in marriage. These laws were
passed during the National Socialist Regime. But the ideas from which they arose are centuries old."
Found Mentally Unfit to Stand Trial:
In 1948, he was declared unfit to stand trial. The next year he was sentenced to six years jail.
Hallervorden was a brain specialist who was Chairman of the Special Pathology Section of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute; he supported the autopsy of
euthanized children for research purposes and dissected their brains himself. [The institute's director was psychiatrist Hans Heinze who would later become
a T4 expert.]
He also conducted research on 500 brains of Jewish vitims from the killing centers of the mentally ill. He ordered Nazi physicians to send him the
brains from concentration camps, stating: "...I heard that they would do it and so I went there and said to them, 'Look here, boys, if you kill the
people anyway, then at least remove the brains so that the material can be used. They asked me how many I could examine and I told them, 'An unlimited
amount, the more the merrier'...There was wonderful material among these brains, great mental illnesses, deformities and early childhood illnesses. Of
course, I accepted the brains. Where they came from and how they got there was of no real interest to me."
Hallervorden and his boss, Hugo Spatz, fled to Giessen after the war but later ran the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt until
1957. The fate of the "Hallervorden Collection" was not sealed until 1990. The Max Planck Institute finally admitted that the "historical
material" stored in its basement was the harvest of Nazi euthanasia. The "material" was eventually given a burial at a Munich cemetery.
REWARDED WITH PRESIDENTIAL STATUS IN PSYCHIATRY
Then there were the T4 consultants who, despite their involvement in this murder machine, were appointed presidents of the German Society of
Psychiatrists and Neurologists after the war.
WERNER VILLINGER: T4 CONSULTANT, Member of the Nazi Party, President of the GSPN, 1952-54.
[President of the German Association for Adolescent Psychiatry, 1952-1961.]
From 1927, Villinger was a follower of Fritz Lenz, a leading advocate of the racial hygiene movement, and whose published works were credited with
influencing Hitler. Between 1934 and 1938, Villinger was a member of Germany's criminal-biological Society, whose chairmen included Ernst Rüdin and Lenz.
On May 1, 1937, while serving as an associate judge of the High Court for Genetic Health in Hamm and Breslau, Villinger joined the Nazi party. That
was a year and a half after the time that official records show that 2,675 notifications for sterilization were reported, 600 applications for sterilization
were filed and 460 sterilizations were actually performed all under Villinger's direction. Villinger also relied upon the guidelines of the 1933
Sterilization Act to justify sterilizing what he deemed to be "asocials." As a military district psychiatrist in 1941, Villinger is listed in
official Nazi records as a T4 consultant and thus was involved in the euthanasia program.
According to T4 staff member Meumann, "the registration forms that were processed by [Villinger] came back to us with considerable delays."
He eventually became a critic of euthanasia, preferring compulsory sterilization.
After the war in 1946, he went on to become a Professor and Director of the psychiatric clinic at the University of Marburg and became president of
the GSPN in 1952. The Hamburg Medical Faculty described Villinger after 1945 as follows: "Above all as the leading adolescent psychiatrist in the
country, it has seldom been mentioned that Villinger is also one of the most active advocates for the application and broad minded interpretation of the
Sterilization Act and as a consultant he contributed also to adult euthanasia."
In 1953, he was awarded the "Cross of the Order of Merit" and later denied his activities as a T4 consultant.
Dr. Friedrich Mauz, T4 Consultant, President GSPN 1957-1958.
In 1928, Mauz was a university lecturer and a professor of psychiatry at Koenigsberg from 1939-1945, holding the same position at Münster beginning
Mauz was intimately involved in the development of the law for "ending the suffering" of the incurably ill. The final session of the
planning of this law took place in August, 1940. The final draft no longer exists, but is documented by a collection of several statements by the
participants. The physicians involved were mostly concerned with finding an incontrovertible legal basis for euthanasia. Hitler rejected the draft and left
it in a drawer. In the end, then, the psychiatric murders continued unhindered and outside of the law.
Mauz, a T4 consultant, was revered by his peers after the war. According to the "Munsterische Zeitung" on May 17, 1980, "The medical
faculty of the University of Munster commemorates today their member of long-standing and Director of the University Clinic, Prof. Dr. Robert Friedrich Mauz...He
has helped, as hardly any other psychiatrist of his generation has, to shape the thoughts and actions of German medicine...(Let us) then pay tribute to the
special accomplishments of Friedrich Mauz."
Years later, in Mauz's obituary, psychiatrist Rainer Tolle refers to Mauz's tenure as a T4 consultant as follows: "In 1932, Mauz and Kretschmer
were called to Bern. If this plan had not fallen apart, Mauz might have been spared a few troubles during the following years and the war, which also left a
stain on his record."
In 1948, he was an official delegate to the Third International Congress of Mental Hygiene in London which formed the WFMH.
Friedrich Panse: T4 Nazi psychiatrist; PRESIDENT OF THE GSNP: 1965 - 1966
Dr. Panse was also a military district psychiatrist. Before that, however, he was the assistant medical director at the Wittenauer
Heilstatten and an associate judge at the High and Common Courts for Freedom from Hereditary Diseases, collaborating in sterilization matters with Dr. Heyde,
among others. In 1935, Panse, along with Kurt Pohlisch, created the Rhenish Provincial Institute for Psychiatric and Neurological Genetics." In 1940,
he became a T4 consultant.
Panse was admitted into the GSPN's predecessor group, GSNP, in 1937, the same year he was lecturering on racial hygiene at the University of Bonn.
The propaganda film about euthanasia that was produced by the Reich was based on an idea by Panse. In 1942, the treatment and cure of war-neurotics,
using a form of electroshock, was named after him and called "pansen." It involved very painful stimulations of electrical currents applied to
large sections of the skin using a roller. War neurotics in Panse's mind, however, meant that they had "psychopathy with the purpose of surreptitiously
obtaining pensions and compensations." In other words, Panse believed soldiers faked being traumatized by the war.
In 1943, he was present at a secret euthanasia conference attended by leading psychiatrists in Berlin in 1943.
In 1947, he was acquitted of wartime collaboration with the Nazis; however, he was never even called upon to explain his actions as a psychiatrist or
to account for his methodologies.
He continued to lecture after the war until 1967 at the Universities of Bonn and Dusseldorf . He died in 1973.
Did the Armenian Genocide Inspire Hitler? -Turkey,
Past and Future
by Hannibal Travis Middle East Quarterly Winter 2013, pp. 27-35
It is well known by genocide scholars that in 1939 Adolf Hitler urged his generals to exterminate members of the Polish race. "Who
speaks today of the extermination of the Armenians?" Hitler asked, just a week before the September 1, 1939 invasion of Poland. However,
while it is generally agreed that Hitler was well aware of the Armenian genocide, some genocide scholars and historians of the Ottoman Empire
have questioned whether he actually made the above statement or even intended to exterminate portions of the "Polish race."
Still, there is evidence that the massacre of the Ottoman Armenians helped persuade the Nazis that national minorities posed a threat to empires
dominated by an ethnic group such as the Germans or the Turks. Furthermore, these minorities could be exterminated to the benefit of the perpetrator with
little risk. Indeed, it was German officials who had smuggled out of the Ottoman Empire the leaders of the Young Turk regime, culpable for the deaths of
over a million Armenians and a million or more other Christian minorities such as the Assyrians and Greeks. Diverse
historical evidence suggests that Hitler viewed the Armenians and Poles as analogous; in several ways, his statement about the Armenians was consistent with
his other beliefs and writings.
A number of clues point to the possibility that Hitler's "final solution" was inspired by the Turkish massacre of its Armenian
population in 1915. His infamous 1939 question, "Who speaks today of the extermination of the Armenians?" although hotly debated
concerning its authenticity, is only one indication leading to that conclusion.
The Assassin's Leak
The historical context of Hitler's statement and the manner in which it came to Western attention has long been problematic. On November 24, 1945, The Times of London published an article stating that Hitler
referred to the extermination of the Armenians during an address to his commanders-in-chief on August 22, 1939, a statement that was read at a hearing of
the Nuremberg trial. Hitler's speech asserted that the
aim of the war is not to attain certain lines, but consists in the physical destruction of the opponent. Thus, for the time being, I have sent to
the East only my "Death's Head units" with the order to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Only
in such a way, will we win the vital living space that we need. Who still talks nowadays of the extermination of the Armenians?
The anti-Nazi writer Louis Lochner, a former bureau chief of the Associated Press in Berlin, quoted Hitler's statement from an original Nazi document
before the Nuremberg trials had even convened.Lochner
had a variety of sources within the Nazi government and had been interned from December 1941 to May 1942 before being exchanged for German diplomats
interned in the United States. After his release, he published What about Germany? containing the quote mentioning the Armenians.The quote was used in the November 1945 The Times article, which cited the ongoing proceedings of
the Nuremberg trials.
Two additional copies of the memorandum describing Hitler's speech were found immediately after the war in the files of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
(German High Command, OKW), but neither contained the Armenian quote. Nor was either military document signed as would be expected for an official record of
a meeting. These incongruities led Nuremberg prosecutors to conclude that there had been two Hitler speeches on August 22 and that the Lochner version
containing the quote was a merger of notes from both. As a result of the disparities, objections were made by lawyers for two Nuremberg defendants, Hermann
Göring and Erich Raeder, to the authenticity of the OKW versions and to the inclusion of the Lochner document in evidence. The key issue for the defense
was not the Armenian quote per se but rather the term "brutal measures," which they claimed was never used by Hitler although they conceded that
he had used "severe" expressions.
Since the prosecution had other records of the meetings, as well as one introduced by defendant Raeder, the Lochner document was included in the trial
record but was not introduced as evidence. In the context of the Nuremberg trials, the overriding issue was not the Armenian quote but Hitler's call for a
brutal war of aggression against Poland. But defenders of the Ottoman Empire regard the court's decision as key: The military versions of Hitler's speech
without the quote are viewed as more reliable, and the Lochner version as suspect or tainted.
The question of Lochner's source for the document, and hence the quote, has therefore been the crux of intense historical interest. Lochner himself
indicated only that he had obtained it from "Mr. Maass" without saying who the original source was at the August 22, 1939 meeting. But subsequent
research had shown that the Lochner and The Times versions
have a clear chain of transmission. The original source of Hitler's speech on the Poles and the Armenians and of its transmission to The Timeswas Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr, a German military intelligence
organization, and a leading figure in the military opposition to Hitler. Canaris became involved with several conspiracies against the dictator, including a
July 20, 1944 assassination plot. Another member of the German resistance, Hans Bernd Gisevius, confirmed that Canaris took notes of the speech even though
it was "forbidden to do so."
Canaris's notes were passed to three men, all of whom were executed before the Nuremberg trials convened and thus could not be questioned: Hans Oster,
Ludwig Beck, and Hermann Maass. Historian Kevork Bardakjian concluded that Canaris likely passed the notes to his deputy, Oster, who then transmitted them
to Beck, a conservative general and former chief of the General Staff, who had long opposed Nazi influence on the German military and foreign policy. Beck
probably instructed Maass, formerly general manager of the Reich Committee of German Youth Associations, to give the document to Lochner due to Beck's role
as a "leader of the German resistance." Like Canaris, Beck was involved in a number of conspiracies and was executed after the failure of the July
20, 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler, in which he had a leading role. Finally, historian Winfried Baumgart has argued that Canaris's notes also
appear to have been the source of the two unsigned documents in the German high command files.
Gisevius and Oster believed that the invasion of Poland gave them a unique chance to get rid of Hitler and ensure peace with Poland. Canaris's
opposition to Hitler was wide-ranging. An official with British intelligence boasted of having "buil[t] … up" Canaris as a potential assassin of
Hitler. In 1944, the Gestapo found documents revealing Canaris to be conspiring with Catholics and the West against
Hitler. The admiral was executed in a concentration camp on April 9, 1945, for plotting a coup against Hitler, along with Oster.
Turkish Historians on the "Armenian Quote"
Hitler's citation of the Armenians in his August 22, 1939 meeting has been an important concern for Turkish historians and pro-Ottoman analysts.
Türkkaya Ataöv of Ankara University, with the apparent endorsement of the Turkish government, has contended that the Armenian quote does not appear in
Nuremberg documents and is a forgery. He goes further to assert that no Armenian genocide took place, that Armenians had collaborated with the Nazis, and
that Turks had welcomed Jews.
Similarly, Princeton University professor Heath Lowry suggested in 1985 that the lack of clear evidence that Hitler's alleged statement about the
Armenians was "authentic" should have put an end to attempts to recognize the Armenian genocide in exhibits of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum,
resolutions of the U.S. Congress, or in the curricula on the Holocaust established by state boards of education. The logical outcome, Lowry argued, was that
the Armenian genocide was simply a type of "propaganda" and "vilification against the Republic of Turkey." Finally,
Guenter Lewy, professor emeritus of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, has contended that any attempt to link the anti-Armenian massacres and the
Holocaust rests "on a shaky factual foundation." But Lewy has conceded that the document containing Hitler's statement about the Armenians might
"represent an embellishment of points made in the speech" by Hitler to his generals in August 1939.
In contrast, in a notable 1995 article in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Roger W. Smith, Eric
Markusen, and Robert Lifton argued that Lowry was being professionally irresponsible in claiming that the Armenian genocide was simply a
"ludicrous" Armenian claim. In their view, it was the more recent claim that Hitler did not refer to the Armenian genocide that lacked an
evidentiary basis.Moreover, they
demonstrate that Lowry, like historian Justin McCarthy, had engaged in a pattern of protesting academic characterizations of the Armenian genocide that was
welcomed by the Turkish government. According to Inside Higher Education, McCarthy once called the Armenian genocide a "meaningless" idea and served on the board of a
grant-making organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute for Turkish Studies, which has ties to the Turkish government. McCarthy argues that the
Armenian case is dissimilar to the Holocaust and resembles the U.S. Civil War.
One of Lewy's preferred sources for Hitler's speech were the copies from the OKW, used by Nuremberg prosecutors to demonstrate command responsibility
for numerous crimes in Poland. Lewy has argued that Hitler's statement about the Armenians was not "accepted as evidence by the Nuremberg
Tribunal," citing Lowry to this effect. Ankara University's Ataöv similarly asserted: "Hundreds of thousands of captured Nazi documents were
assembled as evidence in the trial of the major Nazi war criminals. One cannot find the oft-repeated Hitler 'statement' among these documents." The
idea that the Hitler quote is a forgery and that it does not appear in the Nuremberg trial documents is frequently repeated on websites dedicated to denial
of the Armenian genocide.
While the Lochner document was not used at Nuremberg, even Lowry admits that volume VII of the compilation of evidence against the Nazis, entitled Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, reproduced the statement. That
compilation contained in its introduction a description of the document series as the tribunal's "documentary evidence demonstrating the criminality of
the former leaders of the German Reich." This means that the document was introduced as evidence before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg
even if it was not used on a specific day of the trials. The Lochner document with the Armenia quote was also included in the 1961 publication of foreign
policy documents by the German Foreign Office.
The Armenian Genocide as Nazi Precedent
As part of a larger effort to deny or downplay the Armenian genocide, some historians have claimed that Hitler did not cite the Armenians as an
example of the impunity of perpetrators. They have also denied that the Armenian genocide provided the inspiration or any form of precedent for the design
and conduct of Nazi aggression and genocide.
One method has been to suggest that the Nazi program of extermination was a late creation. Thus, for example, Lewy suggested that Hitler did not order
exterminations in Poland—or mention the extermination of the Armenians—because "by August 1939, Hitler had not yet decided upon the destruction of
This argument is unpersuasive for several reasons. First, as has been shown, there are compelling reasons to believe that Hitler's statements about
extermination in 1939 indeed cited the Armenians and were aimed at the Poles. Hitler's intentions toward the Jews had been spelled out across many
statements, including in the notorious January 1939 speech in which Hitler "prophesied" that another world war would result in the
"annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe." Second, Hitler had repeatedly engaged in virulent anti-Polish and anti-Slavic rhetoric prior to
August 1939. Third, Hitler's decision to destroy Poland as a nation, while allowing some Poles to survive, was entirely
consistent with his political philosophy that nations played out a chaotic struggle for life in an unforgiving world, as shown by history. Finally, there
was the tacit acquiescence of the major powers in the Turkish model of ethnic cleansing and genocide. These may have provided Hitler with reasons to adopt
it for Poland and the East.
To what extent was the Armenian genocide understood as a model by Hitler? In a 1931 interview, he told a German newspaper editor that when deciding
Germany's future, one should "[t]hink of the biblical deportations and the massacres of the Middle Ages (Rosenberg refers to them) and remember the
extermination of the Armenians." Hitler and other contemporary European leaders admired Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as a national leader who won for
the Turkish people the living space it needed from the Slavs and the British. Speaking in 1925, Hitler "dwelt at length on patriotism and national
pride and quoted approvingly the role of Kemal Atatürk of Turkey and the example of Mussolini, who had marched on Rome" a few weeks prior.
The parallels between Hitler and Atatürk were also noted at the time. The influential Foreign
Affairsjournal published an article in the 1930s stating, "Just as in Italy since 1922, and as in Germany since early in the present year, the
conduct of political affairs in Turkey rests today on the personality of a leader. … By means of a clever scheme … the President, while constitutionally
without undue influence, becomes the real autocrat.'" It argued that with the end of foreign "influence," Turkey "had become an almost
homogeneous state" in "national and religious" terms, so that its "Christian minorities hardly existed any longer." In
early 1939, the German socialists had also pointed out the similarity between the Nazis and past leaders of Turkey. Three
days after the speech reported by Canaris, Hitler wrote to Mussolini that he hoped that the Turks could be persuaded to join Italy, Japan, and Russia in an
anti-British coalition. He planned to hand over parts of the southern Soviet Union to Turkey in due time.
The fate of the Armenians was also understood within Nazi ideology. A key influence on Hitler was the Prussian-educated British writer Houston Stewart
Chamberlain. His work Foundations of the Nineteenth Century sold
250,000 copies by 1938 and secured his fame in Germany. Volume 1 of this work offered a model for Germany, arguing that Turkey was
"the last little corner of Europe in which a whole people lives in undisturbed prosperity and happiness," and blaming non-German world powers
(Britain and France) for encouraging an Armenian rebellion, in response to which "the otherwise humane Moslem rises and destroys the disturber of the
In 1927, leading Nazi theorist Alfred Rosenberg had published a booklet calling Chamberlain the "apostle and founder of a German future." In
1938, Rosenberg published a collection of speeches in which he commented that in 1921, after the Turkish minister Talat Pasha was murdered in Berlin by an
Armenian, a campaign was waged in the "international press" to release the killer due to the history of struggle between Armenians and Turks. Rosenberg
endorsed the Turks' resistance to Armenian claims for autonomy ("den armenischen Staat im Staat"), comparing the Armenians to the Jews,
because he claimed the Armenians engaged in espionage against Turkey as the Jews did against Germany. He
"praised Talat Pasha … [and] minimized the [Ottoman Christian] genocide."
Rosenberg also introduced Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter to Hitler. Scheubner-Richter had been the German vice-consul in Erzerum and documented the
planning and implementation of the murder of Armenians by the Young Turks in the name of Islam and pan-Turkic ideology. Scheubner-Richter's relationship to
Hitler was so close that he was killed standing next to Hitler and Rosenberg during the failed Munich "Beer Hall" putsch of 1923. Hitler then
dedicated the first part of Mein Kampf to his
"irreplaceable" fallen comrade. Armenian-American historian Vahkan Dadrian has argued that Scheubner-Richter had a "direct" influence
on Hitler that may have included introducing him to the example of how the Ottoman Armenians (then called the "Jews of the Orient") were deported
from their villages, worked to death, starved, and frozen to death during exposure to harsh winter conditions. Mike
Joseph has called Scheubner-Richter the "personal link from [the Armenian] genocide to Hitler." Scheubner-Richter's
reports regarding the genocidal solution to the Armenian question foreshadow and may have inspired Hitler's later ideas and rhetoric regarding the Jews as
did his descriptions of Turkish methods, including provocations and allegations of terrorism and revolution. Prior to his death, Scheubner-Richter urged
that Germany be "cleansed" of alien peoples by "ruthless" measures.
Other high-ranking Nazis were also well-placed to learn how the Armenian genocide occurred and to inform Hitler. Franz von Papen became Hitler's vice
chancellor after serving as chief of staff of the Fourth Turkish Army during World War I and was responsible for managing German-Austrian and German-Turkish
relations under the Nazis. Rudolf Hess, deputy inspector of concentration camps under Himmler, had served in the Ottoman-German forces fighting the Russians
during World War I. Hans von Seeckt was chief of the Ottoman General Staff in 1917 and 1918 and "laid the groundwork for the later emergence of the
Third Reich's Wehrmacht" and "embraced Hitler and his ideology."
The similarity of the genocidal methods employed by the Nazis and the Ottomans is also inescapable. Parallels between Ottoman and Nazi theory and
practice include the central place of race in the self-conception of the fascist elites and the notion of relocating ethnic minorities to reservations.
Hitler often expressed his belief that race was the dominant independent variable in history and that it had to be dealt with directly by any
ethnonationalist leader who wanted to be successful. "When the race is in danger of being oppressed," he wrote, "the
question of legality plays only a secondary role."
Both the Ottomans and the Nazis also used the concept of ethnic "cleaning" or "cleansing." While the Young Turks implemented a
"clean sweep of internal enemies—the indigenous Christians," according to the then-German ambassador in Constantinople, the
Nazis implemented a "housecleaning of Jews, intelligentsia, clergy, and the nobility." The
official who announced the ethnic cleansing plan for Poland may have been aware of similar policies of the internal security officials of the Ottoman
Empire, which resulted in "hundreds of thousands of the Ottoman Empire's Muslims, Christian Armenians, and Orthodox Greeks [being] expelled or
murdered." Hitler himself used "cleaning" or "cleansing" as a euphemism for extermination and
described his rule as being characterized by an "unheard of cleansing process." On
December 12, 1941, Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary that "with respect of the Jewish question, the Führer has decided to make a clean sweep." Finally,
the impunity with which the Armenians had been slaughtered—the essence of Hitler's August 22, 1939 remark—was reinforced by the international
community's failure to prevent the massacre of other peoples, including later massacres by the Italians using poison-gas and machine-guns in Ethiopia.
Numerous ideological and political influences led from the Armenian genocide to the rape of Poland and the Holocaust. Chamberlain, Hess, Rosenberg,
Seeckt, Scheubner-Richter, and von Papen all likely played a role in prompting Hitler to use Turkey's example as a model for Poland. Hitler compared the two
cases in his 1939 speech, which, like most evidence that the Holocaust took place, was not relied upon in the tribunal's judgment. Subsequent
efforts to discredit the speech by defenders of the Ottoman Empire should not, however, blind us to the manifold connections between the Armenian genocide
and that perpetrated by the Nazis.
Hannibal Travis is the author of Genocide in the
Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan (Carolina Academic Press, 2010) and "The Assyrian
Genocide: A Tale of Oblivion and Denial," in Rene Lemarchand, ed., Forgotten Genocides: Denial,
Oblivion, and Memory(University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).
Jones, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 149.
zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik 1918-1945, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office, ser. D, vol. 7, 1961, p. 193, fn. 1; Louis P. Lochner, What about Germany? (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1943), p.
 Jones, Genocide, p. 173.
W. Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," Political Communication and
Persuasion, 3, 1985, pp. 111-39.
Dadrian, "The Armenian Genocide in German and Austrian Sources," in Israel Charny, ed.,The Widening Circle of Genocide, vol. 3 (New
Brunswick: Transaction, 1994), pp. 122-4.
Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 7, U.S. Chief Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality (Washington, D.C.: Govt. Printing Office, 1946), p. 753.
"The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," pp. 113-4, 121.
 Lochner, What About Germany? pp. 11-2.
B. Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide (Toronto:
Zoryan Institute, 1985), pp. 14-5, 18.
"The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," p. 116.
 Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, pp. 20-3; idem, "Hitler's 'Armenian Extermination' Remark, True or
False?" The New York Times, July 6, 1985.
Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust: From Impunity to Retributive Justice," The Yale Journal of International Law, 23 (1998): 539-40; Allan Bullock, Walter Schellenberg, The Labyrinth: Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's Chief of Counterintelligence (New York: Harper and Bros., 2000), pp. x-xi, 353, 359-60; Joachim Fest, Plotting
Hitler's Death: The Story of German Resistance, Bruce Little, trans. (New York: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt, 1997), p. 5.
 Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, pp. 20-1.
pp. 20-3; Bardakjian, "Hitler's 'Armenian Extermination' Remark, True or False?"; Helen Fein, "Political Functions of Genocide
Comparisons," in Yehuda Bauer, Alice Eckardt, and Franklin H. Littell, eds., Remembering for the
Future: Working Papers and Addenda, vol. 3 (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1989), p. 2432.
Baumgart, "Zur Ansprache Hitler's vor den Führern der Wehrmacht am 22.
August 1939. Eine quellenkritische Untersuchung," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Apr. 1968, pp. 120-49.
 Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, p. 110.
H. Waller, The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War(London: I.B.
Tauris, 1996), pp. 237, 357.
 Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, p. 22; Michael Mueller and Geoffrey Brooks, Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster (Annapolis:
Naval Institute Press, 2007), pp. 208, 245-57.
'Armenian Question': Conflict, Trauma and Objectivity," Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Center for Strategic Research, Republic of Turkey, SAM Papers, no. 3 / 97 (1999), accessed Jan. 5, 2012.
"The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," pp. 123-4.
Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2005), p. 265.
W. Smith, Eric Markusen, and Robert Jay Lifton, "Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide," Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Spring 1995, pp. 9, 12.
Jaschik, "Genocide Deniers," Inside Higher Education, Oct. 16, 2007.
 Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265; Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the
Armenians," p. 120.
Question,'" accessed Jan. 5, 2012.
"The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," Appendix II.
W. Barrett and William E. Jackson, "Preface," in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 1,Nuremberg
Commission, Jan. 20, 1946.
zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik, p. 193, fn. 1.
 Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265.
Veatch, "Minorities and the League of Nations," in United Nations Library, ed., The League of
Nations in Retrospect (Boston-New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1983), p. 380; Otto Tolischus, "German
Army Attacks Poland," in Douglas Brinkley, ed., The New York Times Living History: World War II,
1939-1942: The Axis Assault (New York: Macmillan, 2003), p. 82; Henrik Eberle and Matthias Uhl, eds., The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides(Jackson,
Tenn.: Public Affairs, 2006), pp. 47-8; William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), pp. 872, 875.
Breiting, Secret Conversations with Hitler: The Two Newly-discovered 1931 Interviews,Édouard Calic,
ed. (New York: John Day, 1971), p. 81; Édouard Calic, Unmasked:
Two Confidential Interviews with Hitler in 1931, Richard Barry, trans. (London: John Day, 1971), p. 81;
Dadrian, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," p. 540.
Housden, Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary (New
York: Psychology Press, 2000), p. 47.
Kohn, "Ten Years of the Turkish Republic," Foreign Affairs, Oct. 1933, pp. 143, 145.
Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 129.
to Mussolini, Aug. 25, 1939, in Max Domarus, ed., Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations 1932-1945: The
Chronicle of a Dictatorship, vol. 3 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996), p. 1689.
Gellately, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (New York: Random House, 2009), p. 422.
 Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pp. 152, 156.
Stewart Chamberlain, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, John Lees, trans. (London: J.
Lane, 1911), pp. 6-7.
Nova, Alfred Rosenberg: Nazi Theorist of the Holocaust (New
York: Hippocrene Books, 1986), p. 12.
Rosenberg, Kampf um die Macht: Aufsätze von 1921-1932, Thilo
von Trotha, ed. (Munich: F. Eher nachf., 1943), p. 435.
Hofmann, "An Eye for an Eye: The Assassination of Talaat Pasha on the Hardenbergstrasse in Berlin," in Huberta von Voss, ed., Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World, Alasdair Lean, trans. (New York: Berghahn Books,
2007), p. 295.
W. Baird, To Die for Germany: Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon (Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1992), p. 46.
"The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," pp. 534-7.
Joseph, "Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter: The Personal Link from Genocide to Hitler," in Hans-Lukas Kieser and Elmar Plozza, eds., Der Völkermord an Den Armeniern, Die Türkei und Europa(Zurich: Chronos, 2006), pp. 147, 198.
"The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust," pp. 535-6.
"Documentation of the Armenian Genocide," p. 107; idem, "The Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the
Jewish Holocaust," pp. 533-6.
 Domarus, Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations 1932-1945, vol. 3, pp.
2618, 2748-9, 2593, 2717-8, 2764, 2774, 3130, 3260; Adolf Hitler, My Struggle (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1938), pp. 152-85.
Camus, "State Terrorism and Irrational Terror," in Roger Griffin and Matthew Feldman, eds.,Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science (London: Routledge, 2004), p. 16.
Ambassador in Constantinople, Wangenheim, to the German Imperial Chancellor, Bethmann Hollweg, DE/PA-AA/R14086, DuA Dok. 081 (gk.), June 16, 1915, in
Wolfgang and Sigrid Gust, eds., A Documentation of the Armenian Genocide in World War I (n.p., 1995-2012); Richard Hovannisian, "Introduction:
History, Politics, Ethics," in Richard Hovannisian, ed., The Armenian Genocide: History,
Politics, Ethics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), pp. xi-xii.
 Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 874.
Gerwarth, Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), p. 151.
Cherif Bassiouni, "From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court," Harvard Human Rights Journal, Spring 1997, p. 21.
Hepburn Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, vol. 1 (New York: H. Fertig, 1969), pp. 1115-6.
Zeit (Hamburg), Jan. 9, 1998; Richard Weikart, Hitler's
Ethic: The Nazi Pursuit of Evolutionary Progress (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p. 193.
Baer, Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations (Stanford:
Hoover Institution Press, 1976), pp. 66, 92-3, 170, 183, 199-214, 274, 281, 290-6; A.J. Barker, The Rape
of Ethiopia, 2nd ed. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1971), pp. 106-29; Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian
War, 1935-1941, P.D. Cummins, trans. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 78-84, 109, 120; John W. Turner, "Mussolini's Invasion and
the Italian Occupation," in A
Country Study: Ethiopia (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1991), call no. DT373 .E83 1993.
 Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, p. 265.
Related Topics: Antisemitism, History, Turkey and Turks | Winter 2013 MEQreceive the latest by email:
subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and
accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.
It is clear that there was genocides.
It is clear that Doctors were heavily involved in the Turkish/Islamic murdering.
It is clear that Germany was deeply involved enabling parts of the genocide.
It is clear that the German military was part of the genocide enabling.
It is clear that Turkey feels no guilt and will not label their mass murders as genocide or even exknowledge their mass murders!
Much of the discourse of fact fails to recognize the teaching of the Koran in the background. The Turkish may have used Lying (Taqiyya and Kitman) to
not scare off the Germans till they had no need of them.
It is time that we help Muslims get free of the theocratic, world domination murdering cult based on the Koran by saying the truth and stop the
indoctrination of children to be robotic murders and suicide murders by memorizing the Koran.
“Allahu akbar” five times during his
sentencing, and said that Muslims were “proud to kill in the name of God, and that is what God told us to do in the Quran.”
It would be nice if our leaders stopped lying and saying Islam is a religion of peace!