2.5.1.18 Slavs

 0 Contents 2 Background 2.5 Societal 2.5.1 Europe

Basques 2.5.1.20

2.5.1.19 Conclusion

Conclusion

These pages have been constantly revised and expanded since the first went online. Even so it is far from comprehensive. I have not mentioned the wanderings of Phoenicians, 3P. A. Zalloua et al, Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 83 (2008), pp. 633–642. Jews,4F. L. Mendez et al., Increased Resolution of Y Chromosome Haplogroup T Defines Relationships among Populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa,Human Biology, vol. 83, no. 1 (Feb 2011), pp. 39-53; S.M.Bray et al, Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America(Published online before print August 26, 2010); J.B. Listman et al., Identification of population substructure among Jews using STR markers and dependence on reference populations included, BMC Genetics, vol. 11 (2010), 48; L. Zelinger et al., An ancient autosomal haplotype bearing a rare achromatopsia-causing founder mutation is shared among Arab Muslims and Oriental Jews, Human Genetics, (online first June 14, 2010); D. Behar et al., The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people,Nature, advance online publication 9 June 2010; G. Atzmon et al., Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry,The American Journal of Human Genetics, (03 June 2010); M.F. Hammer et al., Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97 (2000) , no. 12, pp. 6769-6774; A. Nebel et al, The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 69 (5), (2001), pp. 1095-1112 ; D. Behar et al, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations, Human Genetics, vol. 114 (2004), pp. 354–365; D. M. Behar et al., Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora, PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no.4 (2008). and Roma,5D. Gresham et al, Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies), American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 69 (2001), no.6, pp. 1314–1331; I. M. Klari et al., Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: Genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans,American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 138, no. 3 (March 2009), pp. 333–342; A. Gusmão et al., A Genetic Historical Sketch of European Gypsies: The Perspective From Autosomal Markers, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 141 (2010), pp. 507–514; M. Regueiro et al., Divergent patrilineal signals in three Roma populations,American Journal of Physical Anthropology (online 27 September 2010 before print); A. Zalán et al., Paternal genetic history of the Vlax Roma,Forensic Science International: Genetics (online 24 September 2010); I. Mendizabal et al., Reconstructing the Indian origin and dispersal of the European Roma: a maternal genetic perspective, PLoS ONE 6, no.1 ( 2011), e15988.. and only lightly touched on some of the folk-movements and trade routes of historic times, which need to be taken into account when looking at the genetic and linguistic maps of Europe. The restless peoples of Europe have stirred the gene pool many a time, overlaying the signatures of more ancient population movements. The resulting palimpsest cannot be read in an instant.

The aim here is to give a taste of the exciting convergence of ideas and evidence that may ultimately give us a clearer answer to the question of where we Europeans came from. It may not be a simpler answer. What emerges from this survey is that visions of stability over millennia must give way to a more dynamic picture of Europe's prehistory. The continent was not barred to incomers after the arrival of the earliest human beings. On the contrary, the tracks of Neolithic arrivals from the Near East can be seen in DNA. Nor was the Neolithic wave of migration the last. Travellers have cross-crossed Europe in complex patterns over the centuries. From that mixing and mingling we have gained much.

Geographical clusters found in autosomal DNA. Click to enlarge in new window.

Yet each European country has had its own history. Despite the high degree of genetic similarity among Europeans, it is still possible to find national clusters by testing a huge array of variable DNA sites in the human genome. The largest variations correspond to geographical relationships. This is consistent with migration ... and geographic physical boundaries being the most critical or common factor in determining genotypic patterns. Migrations have left a different imprint on each country. Then settled, inter-marrying, populations have had time to develop their own genetic quirks. So to some extent genes mirror geography today.6J.Novembre et al., Genes mirror geography within Europe,Nature vol. 456 (6 November 2008), pp. 98-101; C. Tian et al, European Population Genetic Substructure: Further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups,Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, nos. 11-12 (November 2009), pp. 371–383; C. Tian et al., Analysis and Application of European Genetic Substructure Using 300 K SNP Information, PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 1 (2008): e4; P. Drineas, J. Lewis and P. Paschou, Inferring Geographic Coordinates of Origin for Europeans Using Small Panels of Ancestry Informative Markers, PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 8: e11892 (August 2010).

Notes

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  1. J. Xing et al., Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping, Genomics, vol. 96, no. 4 (October 2010), pp. 199-210; G. Laval et al., Formulating a historical and demographic model of recent human evolution based on resequencing data from noncoding regions, PLoS ONE, vol.5, no. 4 (2010): e10284; J. Chiaroni, P. Underhill and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift and cultural evolution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.106, no. 48 (December 2009), pp. 20174-79; R.N. Gutenkunst et al., Inferring the joint demographic history of multiple populations from multidimensional SNP frequency data, PLoS Genetics, vol. 5, no. 10 (1 October 2009), pp. 1-11; M. DeGiorgio, M. Jakobssonet and N.A. Rosenberg, Explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration outward from Africa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106 no. 38 (Sep 2009), pp. 16057-1606; O. Deshpande, S. Batzoglou, M.W. Feldman and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, A serial founder effect model for human settlement out of Africa, Proceeding of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 276 (2009), pp. 291–300; I. Ionita-Laza, C. Lange and N.M. Laird, Estimating the number of unseen variants in the human genome, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 13 (March 2009), pp. 5008-5013; J.Z. Li et al, Worldwide human relationships inferred from genome-wide patterns of variation, Science, vol. 319, (2008), pp. 1100-04; G. Hellenthal, A. Auton, D. Falush, Inferring human colonization history using a copying model, PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 5 (May 2008); Jakobsson, M. et al, Genotype, haplotype and copy-number variation in worldwide human populations, Nature, no. 451 (21 February 2008), pp. 998-1003; R. Klein, Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, vol. 17, no. 6 (2008), pp. 267 - 281; Q. Ayub et al., Reconstruction of human evolutionary tree using polymorphic autosomal microsatellites, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 122 (2003), pp. 259-268.
  2. H.-J. Bandelt, Y.-G. Yao, M. B. Richards, and A. Salas, The brave new era of human genetic testing, BioEssays, vol. 30, issue 11-12 (2008), pp.1246-1251.
  3. P. A. Zalloua et al, Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 83 (2008), pp. 633–642.
  4. F. L. Mendez et al., Increased Resolution of Y Chromosome Haplogroup T Defines Relationships among Populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa, Human Biology, vol. 83, no. 1 (Feb 2011), pp. 39-53; S.M.Bray et al, Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Published online before print August 26, 2010); J.B. Listman et al., Identification of population substructure among Jews using STR markers and dependence on reference populations included, BMC Genetics, vol. 11 (2010), 48; L. Zelinger et al., An ancient autosomal haplotype bearing a rare achromatopsia-causing founder mutation is shared among Arab Muslims and Oriental Jews, Human Genetics, (online first June 14, 2010); D. Behar et al., The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people, Nature, advance online publication 9 June 2010; G. Atzmon et al., Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry, The American Journal of Human Genetics, (03 June 2010); M.F. Hammer et al., Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97 (2000) , no. 12, pp. 6769-6774; A. Nebel et al, The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 69 (5), (2001), pp. 1095-1112 ; D. Behar et al, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations, Human Genetics, vol. 114 (2004), pp. 354–365; E. Levy-Coffman, A mosaic of people: the Jewish story and a reassessment of the DNA evidence, Journal of Genetic Genealogy, vol. 1 (2005), no. 1, p. 12-33; D.M. Behar et al., Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora, PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no.4 (2008): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002062.
  5. D. Gresham et al, Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies), American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 69 (2001), no.6, pp. 1314–1331; I. M. Klari et al., Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: Genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 138, no. 3 (March 2009), pp. 333–342; A. Gusmão et al., A Genetic Historical Sketch of European Gypsies: The Perspective From Autosomal Markers, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 141 (2010), pp. 507–514; M. Regueiro et al., Divergent patrilineal signals in three Roma populations, American Journal of Physical Anthropology (online 27 September 2010 before print); A. Zalán et al., Paternal genetic history of the Vlax Roma, Forensic Science International: Genetics (online 24 September 2010); H. Pamjav et al., Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma People, American Journal of Physical Anthropology (online 4 January 2011 ahead of print); I. Mendizabal et al., Reconstructing the Indian origin and dispersal of the European Roma: a maternal genetic perspective, PLoS ONE 6, no.1 ( 2011), e15988.
  6. J. Novembre et al., Genes mirror geography within Europe, Nature vol. 456 (6 November 2008), pp. 98-101; C. Tian et al, European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups, Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, nos. 11-12 (November 2009), pp. 371–383; C. Tian et al., Analysis and Application of European Genetic Substructure Using 300 K SNP Information, PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 1 (2008): e4; P. Drineas, J. Lewis and P. Paschou, Inferring Geographic Coordinates of Origin for Europeans Using Small Panels of Ancestry Informative Markers, PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 8: e11892 (August 2010).

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