2.4.02.13 Indoctrination

0 Contents 2 Background 2.4 Culture 2.4.02 My Culture

Cultural Birth 2.4.02 

2.4.02.14 Salvation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Contents
 













 

Part of a series on
Salvation  (cat.)
General concepts
Particular concepts
Punishment
Notes
  • Needs Judaic and Islamic concepts, along with others.

Introduction

To me Heaven is the ideal, the highest potential for behavioral reality. To me this is a future that is or will be built  from our insight into the truths of physical and behavioral reality and our communication with the next generation. The communication is both logical (articulated) and pattern (shown by example).

John 10:31-39 (Renewed Efforts to Stone Jesus)

:31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.

:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
:33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
:34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?
:35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;
:36 Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?
:37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not.
:38 But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know, and believe, that the Father is in me, and I in him.
:39 Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,

I have been born into society with Jesus the Christ.

To me, my salvation is that part of me that ends up in Heaven from being passed on through the lives of those that I influence for good or protect from harm. I find this in a direct relationship with my source of existence (God). I have this relationship because of the logical (articulated) and pattern (shown by example) of Jesus and from His Christship. Jesus was murdered for saying he was the Son of God. Jesus claimed direct access to God and he sacrificed his life for confronting the priests that claimed the control of going to God for the people. If we are in fellowship with Christ we are in fellowship with his Father (God).

In religion, salvation is the concept that God or other Higher Power, as part of Divine Providence, "saves" humanity from spiritual death or eternal damnation by providing for them an eternal life (cf. afterlife). Salvation has been termed the major theme of the Bible.[1]

World religions share the notion that humanity needs salvation from its present condition since humanity does not manifest its purpose of existence and therefore in some sense is "lost." Judaism, Christianity and Islam—the three monotheistic religions of the world—regard salvation as liberation from the bondage of sin and re-establishing a personal communion with God.[2]

Eastern religions tend to stress self-help through individual discipline and practice, sometimes over the course of many lifetimes, though in Mahayana Buddhism bodhisattva and certain buddhas may act as intervening divine agents.[3]

Author Ernest Valea suggests three aspects as important to analyze in assessing the meaning of salvation to a particular religion:

The theological study of salvation is called soteriology. It covers the means by which salvation is effected or achieved, and its results.[4] Salvation may also be called "deliverance" or "redemption" from sin and its effects. By its nature salvation must answer to the plight of humanity as it actually is, offering individuals redemption from slavery to sin, forgiveness from guilt, reconciliation for alienation and "renewal for a marred image of God."[5]:80

In Buddhism, the problem is suffering and the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path. In some forms of Hinduism, the problem is the cycle of reincarnation and the solution is Self-realization.[6] Some religions claim that salvation can be attained by using only inner human resources such as meditation, accumulation of wisdom, asceticism, rituals, or good deeds. Other religions teach that humans can be saved only through the grace granted by an external personal agent (God, a bodhisattva, an avatar, etc.) One’s duty is to recognize the impossibility of being saved by one's own efforts, and therefore accept grace unconditionally.[2]

Etymology

The word "salvation" in the Christian sense originates from O.Fr. salvaciun, from L.L. salvationem (nom. salvatio, a Church L. translation of Gk. soteria), noun of action from salvare "to save". In the general, non-religious sense, from c.1374.[7]

Christianity

At the heart of Christian faith is the reality and hope of salvation in Jesus Christ. Christian faith is faith in the God of salvation revealed in Jesus of Nazareth. The Christian tradition has always equated this salvation with the transcendent, eschatological fulfillment of human existence in a life freed from sin, finitude, and mortality and united with the triune God. This is perhaps the non-negotiable item of Christian faith. What has been a matter of debate is the relation between salvation and our activities in the world.

Anselm Kyongsuk Min[8]:79

According to Christian theologian Frank Stagg, salvation is rooted in the grace of God. "For bankrupt sinners with no ground of their own upon which to stand, with nothing of their own upon which to stand, with nothing of their own to hold up to God for [one's] reward, it is their only hope, but it is their sufficient hope."[5]:80

The Bible presents salvation in the form of a story that describes the outworking of God's eternal plan to deal with the problem of human sin. The story is set against the background of the history of God's people and reaches its climax in the person and work of Christ. Jesus is presented in the New Testament as a Messianic figure who would save all people from the power, guilt, and penalty of sin. He is prophesied to be the one who will ultimately destroy all the devil's work, including suffering, pain, and death (1 John 3:8).

According to the New Testament, this salvation is a gift from God that anyone may receive by exercising faith in Christ and repenting for their sin (Acts 20:21).

Some of the benefits of this salvation are that people become "new creations in Christ" (2 Corinthians 5:17), their sins are forgiven, they receive eternal life and become children of God. They also receive the Holy Spirit, who enables them to live a new life based on God's requirements and to spread the gospel to others (Acts 1:8 and Acts 2:38).

In Christianity, the human problem is sin that causes suffering in this life but may lead to eternal suffering in the next life. According to Christian teachings, God is good, perfect, and just, and so sin by its nature prevents a right relationship with God. Therefore, sinners cannot enjoy the full benefits of knowing God in this life, such as peace, comfort and help in times of trouble. They also cannot spend eternity in God's presence, meaning that their soul will either be annihilated at death or will suffer eternally in the state or place known as Hell.[6] But Christianity claims to offer "good news," and this good news is that it is possible to be saved (attain salvation) from sin and its terrible consequences. The solution, then, is salvation from sin, temporal suffering, and eternal suffering. According to Christian belief, salvation is made possible by the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the "atonement."[6] Jesus died to take away the sin of the world (John 1:29). resurrection vindicates his death and his victory is confirmed by his exaltation to God's throne. For this reason, the New Testament portrays Jesus as the only Saviour of human beings (Acts 4:12), and the early church regarded his salvation as a message for everyone, Gentiles as well as Jews (Acts 13:47).[9]

Salvation is a process that begins when a person first becomes a Christian, continues through that person's life, and is completed when one stands before Christ in judgment. Therefore, according to this author, the faithful Christian can say in faith and hope, "I have been saved; I am being saved; and I will be saved."[10]

Christian salvation concepts are varied and complicated by certain theological concepts, traditional beliefs, and dogmas. Scripture is subject to individual and ecclesiastical interpretations. Therefore, Christian soteriology ranges from exclusive salvation to universal reconciliation concepts.[citation needed] While some of the differences are as wide spread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dying on the cross.

The purpose of salvation is debated (compare purpose of life), but in general most theologians agree that God devised and implemented His plan of salvation because He loves them regards human beings as His children. Since human existence on Earth is said to be "[given] to sin" (John 8:34), salvation also has connotations that deal with the liberation[11] of human beings from sin, and therefore also the inevitable suffering associated with the punishment of sin—i.e., "the wages of sin is death" (Romans 6:23).

Some salvation-related passages in the Christian Scriptures

The New International Version of the New Testament contains 138 verses that with the words "salvation" (45), "save" (41) or "saved" (52). The following are some of the New Testament passages most cited in this regard:

Roman Catholicism

Roman Catholicism, the dominant Christian sect for most of Christian history, has always been a universal religion (i.e., inclusive of new believers), but has only recently (since John Paul II) subscribed to universalist concepts and principles of salvation. Instead of salvation being conditional upon sin, Roman Catholicism had long attached the belief in Jesus the Christ to the concept of salvation itself, and for non-Christians has asserted various "dispensations" ranging from "eternal hell" to 'salvation conditional upon conversion.' Catholic controversies regarding universalists, such as Origen, are notable events in Church history, and have typically resulted in the proclamation of Catholicism being the "one true faith," along with dispensationalist concepts.

Catholics profess belief thatJesus the Christ brought about redemption from sin and assert that salvation is possible only in the Roman Catholic Church.[13] This doctrine remains, but is not always articulated in such clear language. Modern teaching usually uses language similar to the following: Jesus was a divine sacrifice who brought about "redemption for all mankind" (cf. Redemptoris Missio).

Roman Catholics believe[14] "Man stands in need of salvation from God,"[15] and "Divine help comes to him in Christ through the law that guides him and the grace that sustains him."[15] It was for our salvation that "God loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins; the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world, and he was revealed to take away sins."[16] "By his death (Jesus, the Son of God) has conquered death, and so opened the possibility of salvation to all men."[17]

Jesus has provided the Church with "the fullness of the means of salvation which [the Father] has willed: correct and complete confession of faith, full sacramental life, and ordained ministry in apostolic succession".[18] Baptism is necessary for salvation,[19] and is sufficient for those who die as children and those permanently deprived of their use of reason.[20] The sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation for those who have fallen after Baptism, just as Baptism is necessary for salvation for those who have not yet been reborn."[21] But these are not the only sacraments of importance for salvation: "The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation."[22] This holds especially for the Eucharist". Every time this mystery is celebrated, the work of our redemption is carried on and we break the one bread that provides the medicine of immortality, the antidote for death, and the food that makes us live for ever in Jesus Christ."[23]

At the same time, however, the Roman Catholic Church teaches that through the graces Jesus won for humanity by sacrificing himself on the cross, salvation is possible even for those outside the visible boundaries of the Church. Christians and even non-Christians, if in life they respond positively to the grace and truth that God reveals to them through the mercy of Christ may be saved. This may include awareness of an obligation to become part of the Catholic Church. In such cases, "they could not be saved who, knowing that the Catholic Church was founded as necessary by God through Christ, would refuse either to enter it, or to remain in it."[24] Catholics believe that people, even those who are not explicitly Christian, have the moral law written in their hearts, according to Jeremiah 31:33 (prophecy of new covenant): "I will write my law on their hearts." St. Justin wrote that those who have not accepted Christ but follow the moral law of their hearts (logos) follow God, because it is God who has written the moral law in each person's heart. Though he may not explicitly recognize it, he has the spirit of Christ. St. Thomas Aquinas, the premier theologian in the Catholic Church, explains this paradox as follows. If a person lives according to the natural law written on his heart, God will send him a means of knowing the truth by either natural or supernatural means; that is, he will send a missionary to teach him the faith or even an angel, if necessary.[25]

The Church expressly teaches that "it is necessary to hold for certain that they who labor in ignorance of the true religion, if this ignorance is invincible, will not be held guilty of this in the eyes of God" (Singulari Quadam), that "outside of the Church, nobody can hope for life or salvation unless he is excused through ignorance beyond his control" (Singulari Quidem), that "they who labor in invincible ignorance of our most holy religion and who, zealously keeping the natural law and its precepts engraved in the hearts of all by God, and being ready to obey God, live an honest and upright life, can, by the operating power of divine light and grace, attain eternal life" (Quanto Conficiamur Moerore).

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity was much less influenced by Augustine, and even less so by either Calvin or Arminius. Consequently, it doesn't just have different answers, but asks different questions; it generally views salvation in less legalistic terms (grace, punishment, and so on) and in more medical terms (sickness, healing etc.), and with less exacting precision. Instead, it views salvation more along the lines of theosis, a seeking to become holy or draw closer to God, a concept that has been developed over the centuries by many different Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Christians. It also stresses Jesus' teaching about forgiveness in Matthew 6:14-15: "For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses." See also Sermon on the Mount.

The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, known also as The Catechism of St. Philaret [26] includes the questions and answers: "155. To save men from what did (the Son of God) come upon earth? From sin, the curse, and death." "208. How does the death of Jesus Christ upon the cross deliver us from sin, the curse, and death? That we may the more readily believe this mystery, the Word of God teaches us of it, so much as we may be able to receive, by the comparison of Jesus Christ with Adam. Adam is by nature the head of all humanity, which is one with him by natural descent from him. Jesus Christ, in whom the Godhead is united with manhood, graciously made himself the new almighty Head of men, whom he unites to himself through faith. Therefore as in Adam we had fallen under sin, the curse, and death, so we are delivered from sin, the curse, and death in Jesus Christ. His voluntary suffering and death on the cross for us, being of infinite value and merit, as the death of one sinless, God and man in one person, is both a perfect satisfaction to the justice of God, which had condemned us for sin to death, and a fund of infinite merit, which has obtained him the right, without prejudice to justice, to give us sinners pardon of our sins, and grace to have victory over sin and death.

Orthodox theology teaches prevenient grace, meaning that God makes the first movement toward man, and that salvation is impossible from our own will alone. However, man is endowed with free will, and an individual can either accept or reject the grace of God. Thus an individual must cooperate with God's grace to be saved, though he can claim no credit of his own, as any progress he makes is possible only by the grace of God.

Protestants

Broadly speaking, Protestants hold to the five solas of the Reformation which declare salvation to be by faith alone through grace alone in Christ alone.

Debates about how Christ saves us have tended to divide Protestants into conservatives who defended some form of substitutionary atonement theory and liberals who were more apt to accept a kind of moral influence theory. Both those approaches were about 900 years old. Recently, new accounts of Christ's salvific work have been introduced or reintroduced, and the debates have generally grown angrier, at least from the liberal side. Those who defended substitutionary atonement were always ready to dismiss their opponents as heretics; now some of their opponents complain that a focus on substitutionary atonement leads to violence against women and to child abuse.

William C. Placher[28]

Anselm

Shortly after 1100, Anselm, appointed as archbishop of Canterbury, wrote a classic treatise about substitutionary atonement. In it he puts forward the "satisfaction theory" of the Atonement. Man's offense of rebellion against God is one that demands a payment or satisfaction. Fallen man is incapable of making adequate satisfaction. Nevertheless, such is God's love that God will not simply abandon us (at least not all of us) to the consequences of our sins. Anselm wrote, "This debt was so great that, while none but man must solve the debt, none but God was able to do it; so that he who does it must be both God and man." The suffering of Christ, the God-man who is God's only son, pays off what human beings owe to God's honor, and we are thereby reconciled to God.

So God took human nature upon Himself so that a perfect man might make perfect satisfaction and so restore the human race. The success of his work may be gauged by the fact that many Christians today not only accept his way of explaining the Atonement, but are simply unaware that there is any other way.[27]

Calvinism

Calvinists, who adhere to Lordship salvation, further understand the doctrines of salvation to include (but not limited to) the five points of Calvinism, all of which contrast sharply with Arminianism. In the Calvinist system, all people are born sinful (see original sin) and thus are in need of God to save them. God's plan of salvation included the appointing of the elect before the foundation of the world, according to His sovereign good pleasure. The entire process of being born again (or regeneration) is performed solely by the Holy Spirit prior to the person exercising faith, and, indeed, the doctrine of total inability says that faith is impossible apart from such divine intervention. All the elect necessarily persevere in faith because God keeps them from falling away. Thus, the Calvinist system is called monergism because God alone acts to bring about salvation.[citation needed]

Calvinists recognize three tenses of salvation as they are used in the Bible: a Christian has been saved (past), is being saved (present), and will be saved (future). These three steps have also been distinctly referred to as: regeneration, sanctification, and glorification. All three tenses are needed to be saved, all three are freely given of God through Jesus Christ, and all three together constitute the full biblical meaning of salvation. Calvinists confirm, according to Romans 8:30 and Philippians 1:6, that the presence of the first (i.e., if you have been saved) means that the other two will surely follow.[citation needed]

Churches of Christ

See also: Churches of Christ

Churches of Christ believe that humans are lost in sin but can be redeemed because Jesus Christ, the Son of God, offered himself as the atoning sacrifice. The means of salvation that the members of the Churches of Christ experience rely heavily upon obedience to the gospel, especially distinctive in today's world though not exclusive, the understanding that baptism saves (1 Peter 3:12). Churches of Christ reject original sin, salvation by faith alone, and the Calvinistic doctrine of "once saved always saved". Churches of Christ depend on Christ, His death, burial, and resurrection offering the only hope for humanity. A believer is one who has reached an understanding of the gospel, which leads to faith (Acts 16:31), repentance (Acts 2:38), a confession of that faith (Romans 10:9), and baptism by immersion (Acts 2:38; Col 2:12; Gal 3:26-27). Though the Churches of Christ reject salvation by works (Ephesians 2:16), they firmly believe one must never turn their back on God or his ways (Rev 3:16).

Arminianism

Like Calvinists, Arminians agree that all people are born sinful and are in need of salvation. However, they argue that each person can successfully resist God's offer of salvation and that a person can lose his or her salvation if one does not maintain it by continued faith in Jesus. Arminians distinguish between loss of faith and sin and believe that sin alone cannot result in the loss of salvation. However, John Wesley taught that continued backsliding could inevitably lead to loss of faith, and consequently salvation, if left uncorrected.

The Arminian emphasis on free will, or more properly, free choice is important in salvation. If one has free choice, each individual can choose to accept or reject the gift of salvation. The fact that an individual is baptized or associates with other Christians does not mean that he or she has accepted salvation.

Universalism

Universalists agree with both Calvinists and Arminians that men are born in sin and in need of salvation. They also believe that one is saved by Jesus Christ. However, they emphasize that judgment in hell upon sinners is of limited duration, and that God uses judgment to bring sinners to repentance.[28]

Emerging Church, Liberal Theology, and Liberation Theology

Within the emerging church and various branches of liberal or progressive Christianity, there are a number of different views on the meaning of salvation. This is largely related to post-modern views on Christianity as a dialogue rather than a set of doctrines. Salvation can mean a salvific personal and/or social deliverance from the effects of structural (social) or personal sins. In this context, salvation could mean anything from participation in a glorious afterlife—which is generally a less-commonly held belief in these circles—to a kind of liberation similar to that in Hinduism or Buddhism, to the repair of interpersonal relationships, to societal deliverance into a future perfect world (i.e., the New Jerusalem or the Reign of God), and even to such concepts as gay liberation, women's liberation, the raising up of the oppressed and marginalized, or the equal distribution of goods. Any or all of these views are likely to be held and debated within the emerging church.

Non-Trinitarian

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints defines the term salvation in two distinct ways, based on the teachings of their modern-day prophet Joseph Smith, as recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants. The general Christian belief that salvation means returning to the presence of God and Jesus Christ is similar to the way the word is used in the Book of Mormon, wherein the prophet Amulek teaches that through the "great and last sacrifice" of the Son of God, "he shall bring salvation to all those who shall believe on his name; ... to bring about the bowels of mercy, which overpowereth justice, and bringeth about means unto men that they may have faith unto repentance. And thus mercy can satisfy the demands of justice, and encircles them in the arms of safety, while he that exercises no faith unto repentance is exposed to the whole law of the demands of justice;" (Alma 34:14-16)

Judaism

Death and the question of life after death are not central concerns in Judaism. Nevertheless, the Pharisees and their successors, Rabbinic Judaism, taught that "every Jew has a share in the world to come (the afterlife)" (TB Sanhedrin 90a), and also that "the righteous people of other (non-Jewish) nations...", those who follow the elementary morals embodied in the Seven Noahide Laws, "...have a share in the world to come" (Tos. Sanhedrin 13, TB ibid. 105a). Although a person who sins may be punished either in this world or the next, punishment in the next world is in most cases limited in duration to 12 months (Mish. Eiduyot 2:10). Complete loss of a share in the afterlife (or, alternatively, eternal punishment; TB Rosh Hashanah 17a) is imposed for only a small number of very serious sins, most of which have to do with heresy. Even then a person can regain his share in the world to come through repentance and atonement. E. P. Sanders describes this overall view of salvation as "covenantal nomism".

A belief in the World to Come is important in Orthodox Judaism but its importance in other Jewish denominations vary. Most Jewish thinkers emphasize that Judaism concentrates on the here and now. [29]

Islam

In Islam one must believe in the one God ('Allah' in arabic). This belief is not enough to avoid hell fire, but is enough to ensure that one eventualy ends up in heaven. Therefore, the topic of salvation within the Islamic context is a bit more complicated; there is never a guarantee for anyone to avoid hellfire. Islam does not claim any creation taking the responsibility of man's sin, instead every person including man, woman and prophet is responsible for his/her own sins; A person must both believe in one God and do well to get "salvation". In the Quran, whenever entrance to heaven is promised, it is promised to those who beleive AND do good deeds. Those with believe WILL eventually enter heaven, but only after they are punished for their sins. In one hadith narrated by Anas, the Prophet Mohammed PBUH said,

"Whoever said "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah" and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a barley grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah" and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a wheat grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell." [30]

Believe is not enough, a Muslim must also think of his sin, seek God's forgiveness and repent. God forgives sins but it is not a guarantee, therefore a Muslim must keep a balance between fear of God, and hope in his mercy. One who does not have this balance is in danger of losing his believe; One who has absolute hope in God's mercy and no fear of his wrath, will end up sinning believing God will forgive him anyways, and one who has absolute fear of God's wrath and no hope in his mercy will also end up sinning as he sees himself entering hellfire regardless.

A Muslim must also think of heaven. The matter is not as simple as entering hellfire or entering heaven. Both hellfire and heaven have levels. A Muslim seeks to enter heaven and aims for the highest level. He does this by increasing his good deeds. However, a Muslim does not believe that his good deeds merit him heaven, instead it is God's mercy on the people that lets them into heaven. The levels in heaven (and hell) are only a direct result of God's justice; Those who do better, deserve better.

Eastern Religions

Adherents of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism do not believe in salvation in the sense understood by most Westerners. They do not focus on Hell or Heaven as the end of a soteriological choice, but on knowledge. They believe in reincarnation (Buddhism rebirth) after death. According to this belief, one's actions or karma allow one to be reborn as a higher or lower being. If one is evil and has a multitude of bad actions, one is likely to be reborn as a lower being. If one has a multitude of good actions or karma, one is likely to be reborn as a higher being, perhaps a human with higher status or in a higher caste.

Eventually, however, one is able to escape from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, through the attainment of the highest spiritual state. This state is called moksha (or mukti) in Hinduism, Sac Khand in Sikhism, moksa or nirvana in Jainism and often called nirvāṇa in Buddhism. This state is not one of individual happiness but often a merging of oneself with collective existence. Sometimes, as with nirvāṇa, it is a liberation from conditioned existence.

Hinduism

In Hinduism, salvation is the Atman's liberation from Saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth and attainment of the highest spiritual state. It is the ultimate goal of Hinduism, where even hell and heaven are temporary. This is called moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, "liberation") or mukti (Sanskrit: मुक्ति, "release"). Moksha is a final release from one's worldly conception of self, the loosening of the shackles of experiential duality and a re-establishment in one's own fundamental nature, though the nature is seen as ineffable and beyond sensation. The actual state is seen differently depending on school of thought.

Brahman is the universal substrate and divine ground of all being. Thus monism is the basis of practically all philosophies in Hinduism, including major sects of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism. Even the Dvaita school of Vaishnavism, is wrongly assumed as 'dualist' but it is actually a form of dualist monism. In contrast to the Smartha sect based on Advaita philosophy which regards identification of Atman with Brahman as the means to achieve liberation, practically all forms of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism view union via close association with God through loving devotion.

Moksha is achieved when the individual Atman unites with the ground of all being - the source of all phenomenal existence — Brahman through practice of Yoga. Hinduism recognizes several paths to achieve this goal, none of which is exclusive. The paths are the way of selfless work (Karma Yoga), of self-dissolving love (Bhakti Yoga), of absolute discernment & knowledge (Jnana Yoga) or of 'royal' meditative immersion (Raja Yoga).

Buddhism

Liberation, called nirvāṇa in Buddhism, is seen as an end to suffering, rebirth, and ignorance. (It should be noted that Buddhism doesn't have a concept of original sin, or innate personal corruption/pollution, as is found in Christianity.) The Four Noble Truths outline some of Buddhist soteriology: they describe suffering (dukkha) and its causes, the possibility of its cessation, and the way to its cessation, that is, the Noble Eightfold Path, which includes wisdom (pañña), morality (sīla), and concentration (samādhi). The means of achieving liberation are further developed in other Buddhist teachings. They are expressed in different terms by Theravāda, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhists.

Jainism

Mokṣa in Jainism means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha or paramatman and considered as supreme soul or God. In Jainism, it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. It fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With right faith, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. Samaṇ Suttaṁ [32] compiled by Jinendra Varni contains the following description of Nirvāṇa or mokṣa -

According to Jainism, moksa or liberation can be attained only in the human birth. Even the demi-gods and heavenly beings have to re-incarnate as humans and practice right faith, knowledge and conduct to achieve liberation. According to Jainism, human birth is quite rare and invaluable and hence a man should make his choices wisely.

Sikhism

Salvation in Sikhism means ending the cycle of death and rebirth and thus merging oneself with the Infinite Formless God.According to Guru Nanak,the founder of Sikhism,the goal of the human is to have union with God and for this the Sikhs are to conquer their ego and thus realizing their true nature which is the same as God.There are five spiritual stages through which the Sikhs go through reaching the final stage of having union with God.

1. Dharam Khand: The realm of Righteous action.
2. Gian Khand: The realm of Knowledge.
3. Saram Khand: The realm of Spiritual endeavor.
4. Karam Khand: The realm of Grace.
5. Sach Khand: The realm of Truth.

According to Sikhism, moksa or liberation can be attained only in the human birth. Even the demi-gods and heavenly beings have to re-incarnate as humans and practice right faith, knowledge and conduct to achieve liberation. According to Sikhism, human birth is quite rare and invaluable and hence a man should make his choices wisely.

Redemption

For other uses of the word, see Redemption

Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation, generally through sacrifice. Redemption is common in many world religions and all Abrahamic Religions, especially in Christianity and Islam(المغفرة).

In Christianity, redemption is synonymous with salvation. The Christian religion, though not the exclusive possessor of the idea of redemption, has given to it a special definiteness and a dominant position. Taken in its widest sense, as deliverance from dangers and ills in general, most religions teach some form of it. It assumes an important position, however, only when the ills in question form part of a great system against which human power is helpless.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Salvation." Macmillan Dictionary of the Bible. London: Collins, 2002. Credo Reference. 19 July 2009. ISBN 0333648056
  2. ^ a b c Valea, Ernest. "Salvation and eternal life in world religions." Comparative Religion. 13 June 2009. http://www.comparativereligion.com/salvation.html#10
  3. ^ "salvation." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9109405/salvation
  4. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/S0573100.html
  5. ^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN 0805416137
  6. ^ a b c "Christian Doctrines of Salvation." Religion facts. June 20, 2009. http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/beliefs/salvation.htm
  7. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=salvation
  8. ^ Min, Anselm Kyongsuk. Dialectic of Salvation: Issues in Theology of Liberation. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1989. ISBN 9780887069086
  9. ^ Akin, James. "The Salvation Controversy." Catholic Answers, October 2001
  10. ^ Newman, Jay. Foundations of religious tolerance. University of Toronto Press, 1982. ISBN 0802055915
  11. ^ Parry, Robin A. Universal salvation? The Current Debate. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0802827640
  12. ^ Salvation, Catholic Encyclopedia
  13. ^ Most Protestants argue the word rendered justified is not used as "to make righteous" but to be "shown already righteous" (as the word is used in Matthew 11:19), meaning that a person's good behaviour proves they have been saved, as God is sanctifying them, making them a better person, after having saved them. Thus most Protestants distinguish sharply between (and some separate entirely) sanctification and justification. Catholics and Eastern Orthodox see justification and sanctification as being integrated together. The Council of Trent, while anathematizing any who would say that a person can, before God, be justified by works done in human strength alone, without the divine grace merited by Jesus Christ (canon 1 of its Decree on justification), declared that the justice granted to Christians is preserved and increased by good works, and accordingly these are more than just the fruit and sign of justification obtained (canon 24).
  14. ^ "The most Holy Roman Church firmly believes, professes and preaches that none of those existing outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and heretics and schismatics, can have a share in life eternal; but that they will go into the eternal fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless before death they are joined with Her; and that so important is the unity of this ecclesiastical body that only those remaining within this unity can profit by the sacraments of the Church unto salvation, and they alone can receive an eternal recompense for their fasts, their almsgivings, their other works of Christian piety and the duties of a Christian soldier. No one, let his almsgiving be as great as it may, no one, even if he pour out his blood for the Name of Christ, can be saved, unless he remain within the bosom and the unity of the Catholic Church." Pope Eugene IV, Papal Bull Cantate Domino; cf. Session 11 of the Council of Florence
  15. ^ In his Apostolic Letter Fidei Depositum of 11 October 1992, Pope John Paul II declared: "The Catechism of the Catholic Church, which I approved June 25th last and the publication of which I today order by virtue of my Apostolic Authority, is a statement of the Church's faith and of catholic doctrine, attested to or illumined by Sacred Scripture, the Apostolic Tradition, and the Church's Magisterium. I declare it to be a sure norm for teaching the faith."Fidei Depositum, 3
  16. ^ a b CCC 1949
  17. ^ CCC 456-457
  18. ^ CCC 1019
  19. ^ CCC 830
  20. ^ CCC 1256-1257, 1277
  21. ^  "Salvation". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salvation.
  22. ^ CCC 980
  23. ^ CCC 1129
  24. ^ CCC 1405
  25. ^ Lumen gentium, 14
  26. ^ Questions and Answers on Salvation, Question 41d, Fr. Michael Müller, C.Ss.R.
  27. ^ "The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church". http://www.pravoslavieto.com/docs/eng/Orthodox_Catechism_of_Philaret.htm. Retrieved on 14 FEB 2009.
  28. ^ a b c Placher, William C. "How does Jesus save? Christian Century, 00095281, 6/2/2009, Vol. 126, Issue 11
  29. ^ "Merciful Truth". http://www.mercifultruth.com. Retrieved on 14 FEB 2009.
  30. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Salvation
  31. ^ Sahih Bukhari Book of Iman
  32. ^ Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit (1993). Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti.
  33. ^ "Redemption." Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. July 2, 2009. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc09/htm/iv.vii.lxxxv.htm

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvation"