0 Contents 2 Background 2.4 Culture 2.4.1 Origins 

 Real Mathematics Origin of an ancient jade tool baffles scientists

Source of rock for 3,300-year-old gouge 
discovered in islands off New Guinea is puzzling


The discovery of a 3,300-year-old tool has led researchers to the rediscovery of a "lost" 20th-century manuscript and a "geochemically extraordinary" bit of earth.

Discovered on Emirau Island in the Bismark Archipelago (a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea), the 2-inch (5-centimeters) stone tool was probably used to carve, or gouge, wood. It seems to have fallen from a stilted house, landing in a tangle of coral reef that was eventually covered over by shifting sands.

The jade gouge may have been crafted by the Lapita people, who appeared in the western Pacific around 3,300 years ago, then spread across the Pacific to Samoa over a couple hundred years, and from there formed the ancestral population of the people we know as Polynesians, according to the researchers.

Courtesy of LiveScience Map of the area around eastern New Guinea showing the location of Emirau Island, where the jade artifact was found, and Torare River, the possible source of the rock.

Jade gouges and axes have been found before in these areas, but what's interesting about the object is the type of jade it's made of: it seems to have come from a distant region. Perhaps these Lapita brought it from wherever they originated.

Green rocks
Jade is a general term for two types of tough rock — those made of jadeite jade and another group of nephrite jade. The stones are both greenish in color, but nephrite jade is slightly softer, while jadeite jade is scarcer, mostly found in cultures from Central America and Mexico before Europeans arrived.

"In the Pacific, jadeite jade as ancient as this artifact is only known from Japan and its usage in Korea," study researcher George Harlow, of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, said in a statement. "It's never been described in the archaeological record of New Guinea."

Researchers from American Museum of Natural History studied the artifact with X-ray micro-diffraction, which bounces a small beam of X-rays off the specimen in order to find its atomic structure, and in turn, the minerals within the rock. A rock's mineral composition varies depending on what chemicals are in the ground when it forms. The signatures are so specific researchers can sometimes pinpoint the origin of rocks.

Surveying stone
"When we first looked at this artifact, it was very clear that it didn't match much of anything that anyone knew about jadeite jade," Harlow said. The artifact's chemical composition "makes very little sense based on how we know these rocks form."

The jadeite in the rock is different from the jadeite jades found in Japan and Korea at the time. It's missing certain elements and has more-than-expected amounts of others; the stone came from another geological source, but the researchers aren't sure where. The only chemical match the researchers knew of was a site in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

The story goes on to doubt it could travel that far.

0.5 The Reality Foundation Of Mathematics:

The foundation of mathematics in reality is clear to a thinking person that has enough hands-on experience with learning reality out of a need to know and in physical contact with physical reality. Not some one with a foundation of book learning or verbal indoctrination.

In later mammoth hunting they sailed longer and longer distances. On there way home sailing many days and nights they would not stop because the delay would spoil the meat. That is a no-brainer. So they had night watches. It was easy to see the nightly passage of the same star patterns over head. They could tell the time of night qualitatively (like late, early and midnight). 

Sometimes it was cloudy and they wanted to know the time. Someone seeing a dripping skin bucket used it and took it as a rough clock. Then needing a more accurate clock they kept filling the drip bucket and caught the drips. They already used balances and same stone weights to share meat so it was simple to get same size pebbles and catching the drip water in an other bucket and finding the pebble weight to know the time of day on a full day and night basis. 

They recognized that the daily overhead star pattern and sun's location were different at home than from their observations depending on how fare east or west they were from home. They used a hanging stone for vertical and the difference between the vertical and the line-of-sight angle to a star or the sun to tell the east-west angle difference between their location and home. They calibrated a days travel east or west to the drips of the clock. This gave them a way of knowing their longitude from home in terms of time or angle. Using home time on there drip clock they counted the drips (or pebble weights) they were to the east or west of home in time to travel or angle. 

With the longer voyages they noticed a change in the north and south position of the stars with the time of year. By writing a picture of the angle of the line of sight to the North Pole location they could tell the time of year at home. By comparing the angle to the north pole by line of sight and comparing to the angle at home for that time of year they could tell the latitude. When sailing south of where they could observe the north pole they used known stars. With using the star patterns they realized that there were a few wondering stars (the planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn).

This was not magic it was just the world in which we live and move and have our being. This was just practical reality. They did respect the Sun for its light and warmth. They did respect the earth for the food it gave. They did respect the moon for the night light it gave. That is different than the insanity of believing they were intelligent beings and worshiping them or doing human sacrifice to them!

What brought about the corruption?

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