2.4.1.1 Primate 

0 Contents 2 Background 2.4 Culture 2.4.1 Origins 

 Mammoth Hunt 1.4.1.2

2.4.1.2 The myth of the noble savage.

1 The myth of the noble savage.
   
1.1 Evidence of human sacrifices uncovered in Peru
    1.2 Confronting The Image Of Evil White Man
          1.2.1 Australian event while I'm writing. 
         1.2.2 International Corruption Index for 2011
    1.3 Back to the savage reality!
         1.3.1 Indians News 2012.
                 1.3.1.1 The Mascho Piro Tribe.
                 1.3.1.2 Proposed in 2007 'Transitory' Reserves
         1.3.2 Innocence is beautiful 
                  and genetic disposition is real
    1.4 Early Americans Were European
         - Original Article - Saved Copy

1 Myth of the Noble Savage

I grew-up in Niagara County next to a Tuscarora  Indian Reservation. It was interesting to me that before they were civilized they were visited by two French Missionaries described by Luke 10 in the Christian Bible (giving up all and going 2x2 with nothing but the shirt on their back!).

In the social movement and academic literature I found much degradation of  European White People while proclaiming the noble savage!

While it is true the affluent ruling class had much degradation genetically by inbreeding and behaviorally by the use of wet nurses and hirelings to raise their  children. The degeneration of affluent child care led to Narcissism, Sociopathy, Perversion, Psychopathy, and Sadomasochism in some of the ruling class. 

The American Indians: In 1661 many Indians (and Europeans) died from a smallpox epidemic but that was 102 years before a sociopathic British Lord suggested giving Indians infected blankets there is no proof that happened. Conspiracy theorist think it did but soldiers were sick and dying at the same time in 1763.

 

1.1 Evidence of human sacrifices uncovered in Peru.

Archaeology 2011-10-03


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Peruvian archaeologists say they have uncovered evidence of gruesome human sacrifices, carried out some 800 years ago by a pre-Incan civilisation.

Copyright © 2011 euronews

1.2 Confronting The Image Of Evil White Man

I was motivated to investigate the "Niagara Falls Legend - Maid of the Mist". I ended up learning that the Mohawk Indians (Mohawks) "their ancestors used to eat enemies they had killed in battle." and that Human sacrifice was a religious practice characteristic of pre-Columbian Aztec civilization, as well as of other mesoamerican civilizations such as the Maya and the Zapotec.

At the same time there is much college level writing that project the image of the "Noble savage" and the  Substitute “Evil White Men” for “Evil Romans.” But remember the Romans made it save for Jesus and the Apostles to travel in the land of the Seven Churches (Turkey) where now in 2007 three men were tortured and murdered for printing Bibles. By murder now the land of the Seven Churches is around 98% Muslim and only 0.06% Christian with Christians being murdered for their religion on a regular basis! Look at a map of world crime and corruption! (using simple math)

1.2.1 Australian event while I'm writing.

http://www.euronews.net/2012/01/26/gillard-jostled-on-australia-day/


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There was a nasty surprise for Australia’s prime minister and leader of the opposition who chose to celebrate Australia’s national public holiday at an awards ceremony in a Canberra restaurant.

But a crowd of protesters got wind of the event and some 200 supporters of indigenous rights came from the nearby Aboriginal Tent Assembly, a gathering to protest against the official Australia Day they dub “Invasion Day”. The Assembly is celebrating its 40th anniversary this year.

Australia Day commemorates the day in 1788 when the first British colonists arrived.

It appears the opposition leader Tony Abbott was the protester’s target, as he had earlier made comments saying that the tented camp should be evicted and that it was time the Assembly “moved on”.

Taking him at his word they did, and moved on the restaurant so forcefully that Prime Minister Julia Gillard lost a shoe in the melee as security tried to evacuate her.

She was unhurt and later went on to host a reception for foreign ambassadors. Windows were broken at the awards venue as scuffles briefly intensified during and after her and Abbott’s escape.

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Copyright © 2012 euronews

1.2.2 International Corruption index 2011 (from Transparency International) find out how countries compare

Which country is most corrupt? North Korea is now officially considered the world's most corrupt country, along with Somalia. But why has the US gone up one place and the UK's score improved? See how the annual corruption index has changed

Corruption around the world remains a deeply entrenched, global concern according to Transparency International's 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) - the world's most credible measure of of domestic, public sector corruption.

This year, two thirds of countries covered by the index were given scores less than 5 - which means they are considered significantly corrupt.

The CPI scores countries on a scale of zero to 10, with zero indicating high levels of corruption and 10, low levels. And the most corrupt places in the world are not the most surprising. Unstable governments, often with a legacy of conflict, continue to dominate the bottom rungs of the CPI. Afghanistan and Myanmar share second to last place with a score of 1.5, with Somalia and North Korea - measured for the first time - coming in last with a score of 1.


Click to view country's ranks and scores.

 

he world's most peaceful countries score the best. In the 2011 CPI, New Zealand is top with a score of 9.5, followed by Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Singapore.

Four countries and territories besides North Korea are included for the first time: the Bahamas, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Suriname.

Transparency International (TI) chair Huguette Labelle says corruption remains a major global issue, highlighted by widespread demonstrations in 2011: "This year we have seen corruption on protestor's banners be they rich or poor. Whether in a Europe hit by debt crisis or an Arab world starting a new political era, leaders must head the demands for better government."

Wealth seems no easy antidote to corruption: some relatively rich countries, including Russia, fall at the bottom of the global league table. Meanwhile, some of the world's poorer states do comparatively well: Botswana, Bhutan, Cape Verde, and Rwanda all appear among the 50 "cleanest" countries.

While the index has been published annually since 1995, TI warns against comparing scores over time, as sources for the index change each year. However, the Berlin-based NGO notes that two general trends pop out regardless: Arab Spring countries, and many Eurozone countries – particularly those affected by the financial crisis – are doing worse and worse.

Most Arab Spring countries rank in the lower half of the index, with scores below 4. Many of the lowest-scoring European countries are those hardest hit by the financial and debt crises – including Greece and Italy.

The UK ranks 16th, along with Austria and the Barbados, and just ahead of Belgium and Ireland. The US ranks 24th.

The Index, which is closely watched by investors, economists, and civil society campaigners, is based on expert assessments and data from 17 surveys from 13 independent institutions, covering issues such as access to information, bribery of public officials, kickbacks in public procurement, and the enforcement of anti-corruption laws. While critics note that measuring perceptions of corruption is not the same as measuring corruption itself, the latter is almost impossible to do - as the corrupt are usually keen to cover up their tracks, hard data on graft and bribery is notoriously difficult to come by.

Notice that the White Christian and Capitalist areas are among the most honest, Where the Dark, Muslim and Communist are among the most corrupt.

Matthew 7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

Jesus (as the first born son of God in the flesh) said:

Matthew 7:14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. 

:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

:16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? :17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. :18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.

:19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
:20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.

True Science with historical investigation is beginning to show:
1. The savages were usually not noble.
2. The Christian White Culture is one that has bred personal integrity that builds communities with low crime and builds societies with low corruption.
3. Child care with a maternal nursing bond, with a mother in the home and a father as the providing head of the household in a Christian or Buddhist type respect for individual sovereignty, respect for elders and responsibility for one's self are at the heart of communities that raise children to reach their higher potential for:
3.1 loving themselves, 
3.2 loving others like self as a friend, 
3.3 loving others not like self as a marriage partner or friend, 
3.4 loving a helpless new born as a parent, 
3.5 generalizing the love of ones children to care for healthy schools and communities for all children, 
3.6 generalizing the love of one's children to care for the world of work and war that they grow into and 
3.7 growing in love for the gift of life to the motivational point of finding meaning and purpose in serving life's continued evolution into health and safety.

These values were most common in family farm societies. With technical development and women not choosing to be home makers the family farm is dying out. Places like South Korea are thriving in post war industrialization but with the mother out of the home it has come to have the highest suicide rate in the world! 

1.3 Back To The Savage Reality


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We now know the wisdom of history that kept the preliterate story of "Garden of Eden" being carried on from generation to generation. What does the serpent represent the male penis associating the genetic father with a child. The fruit with the knowledge of good and evil represents the way that the female used this knowledge as part of her manipulative power to make the male guilty of fathering and therefore responsible to her as the one in charge of the child's care. The women corrupted because she was often raped and wanted the protection and provision of a male as she was busy with her nursing bond with her child for up to six years. The man corrupted into raiding another tribe for its young women by the simple fact that that was what survived over physical weakness and inbreeding.

The essence of the story is that it was better in the past when humans had no consciousness of right and wrong and just developed genetically and behaviorally based on time and chance and what survived to propagate.

There are many voids and misconceptions in what is commonly taught about the hunter-gatherer tribes. Lets clear some up but we need to go slow. Even the T.E.D. presentation by Steven Pinker on the myth of violence while getting it right about the Garden of Eden, He fails to grasp the reality of the "dark ages" and "The Enlightenment"

1.3.1 Indians News 2012.

2012-01-02 Indian tribe lead attacks with bows and arrows

http://www.euronews.net/2012/02/01/indian-tribe-lead-attacks-with-bows-and-arrows/

 
"The Mashco-Piro live by their own social code, which Soria said includes 
the practice of kidnapping other tribes' women and children."


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Pictures of the Mascho-Piro Indians believed to be the most detailed sightings ever recorded on camera have been published. The previously isolated tribe has been blamed for bow and arrow attacks on people in Madre e Dios state in Peru.

It is believed the attacks may have been their reaction to workers and tourists encroaching on their territory wanting to get a glimpse of the tribe.

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1.3.1.1 The Mascho Piro Tribe.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Mascho Piro are an indigenous tribe of hunter-gatherers believed to inhabit remote regions of the Amazon rainforest. Not very much is known about the tribe due to their extremely reclusive nature, and many doubt their existence. Some estimate that the group numbers around 600 people.

In September 2007, a group of ecologists filmed about 20 members of the Mascho Piro tribe from helicopter flying above the Alto Purús national park. The group had established camp on the banks of the Las Piedras river near the Peruvian and Brazilian border. Scientists believe that the tribe prefers to construct palm-leaf huts on riverbanks during the dry season for fishing. During the wet season, they retreat to the rain forest.

Similar huts were spotted in the 1980s.

References

Photo By Diego Cortijo Tue, Jan 31, 2012

2012-02-01 Isolated Peru tribe makes uncomfortable contact

This Nov. 2011 image made available by Survival International on Tuesday Jan. 31, 2012, shows members of the Mashco-Piro tribe, photographed at an undisclosed location near the Manu National Park in southeastern Peru. According to Survival International the image is one of the closest sightings of isolated Amazon Indians ever recorded with a camera. (AP Photo/Diego Cortijo,Survival International)
Enlarge Photo
This Nov. 2011 image made available by Survival International on Tuesday Jan. 31, 2012

An arrow shot into his heart Nov. 22, 2011
This image made available by Spanish archaeologist Diego Cortijo Monday Jan. 30, 2012, shows Nicolás "Shaco" Flores, a Matsiguenka Indian, at an undisclosed location. The image of Flores was made a few days before Flores was killed, Nov. 22, 2011, by an arrow shot into his heart, apparently by a member of the long-isolated Maschco-Piro tribe. A small group of Mashco-Piro began appearing regularly beginning last year on the bank of a major river in Peru’s Amazon and authorities are struggling to keep people away. Flores had provided the Indians with machetes and pots and pans. (AP Photo/Diego Cortijo)
Enlarge Photo
Imageby Spanish archaeologist Diego Cortijo
 
Nicolás "Shaco" Flores, Murdered Nov. 22, 2011

 

LIMA, Peru (AP) — Peruvian authorities say they are struggling to keep outsiders away from a clan of previously isolated Amazon Indians who began appearing on the banks of a jungle river popular with environmental tourists last year.

The behavior of the small group of Mashco-Piro Indians has puzzled scientists, who say it may be related to the encroachment of loggers and by low-flying aircraft from nearby natural gas and oil exploration in the southeastern region of the country.

Clan members have been blamed for two bow-and-arrow attacks on people near the riverbank in Madre de Dios state where officials say the Indians were first seen last May.

One badly wounded a forest ranger in October. The following month, another fatally pierced the heart of a local Matsiguenka Indian, Nicolas "Shaco" Flores, who had long maintained a relationship with the Mashco-Piro.

The advocacy group Survival International released photos Tuesday showing clan members on the riverbank, describing the pictures as the "most detailed sightings of uncontacted Indians ever recorded on camera."

The British-based group provided the photos exactly a year after releasing aerial photos from Brazil of another tribe classified as uncontacted, one of about 100 such groups it says exist around the world.

One of the Mashco-Piro photos was taken by a bird watcher in August, Survival International said. The other two were shot by Spanish archaeologist Diego Cortijo on Nov. 16, six days before Flores was killed.

Cortijo, a member of the Spanish Geographical Society, was visiting Flores while on an expedition in search of petroglyphs and said clan members appeared across the river from Flores' house, calling for him by name.

Flores could communicate with the Mashco-Piro because he spoke two related dialects, said Cortijo, who added that Flores had previously provided clan members with machetes and cooking pots.

The Mashco-Piro tribe is believed to number in the hundreds and lives in the Manu National Park that borders Diamante, a community of more than 200 people where Flores lived.

Although it's not known what provoked the Mashco-Piro clan to leave the relative safety of their tribe's jungle home, Beatriz Huerta, an anthropologist who works with Peru's agency for indigenous affairs, speculated their habitat is becoming increasingly less isolated.

The upper Madre de Dios region where the tribe lives has been affected by logging, she said. "They are removing wood very close."

Meanwhile, Huerta said, naturalists in the area and Manu National Park officials told her during a recent visit that a rise in air traffic related to natural gas and oil exploration in the region is adversely affecting native hunting grounds, forcing increasing migration by nomadic tribes.

The clan that showed up at the river is believed to number about 60, including some 25 adults, said Carlos Soria, a professor at Lima's Catholic University who ran Peru's park protection agency last year.

"It seemed like they wanted to draw a bit of attention, which is a bit strange because I know that on other occasions they had attacked people," Cortijo said by phone from Spain. "It seemed they didn't want us to go near them, but I also know that the only thing that they wanted was machetes and cooking pots."

Cortijo said the group lingered by the river a few minutes, apparently to see if a boat would pass by so they could ask for some tools, something authorities say they had done in the past.

"The place where they are seen is one of heavy transit" of river cargo and tourist passage, and so the potential for more violent encounters remains high, Soria said.

That is compounded by culture clash. The Mashco-Piro live by their own social code, which Soria said includes the practice of kidnapping other tribes' women and children.

He said the Mashco-Piro are one of about 15 "uncontacted" tribes in Peru that together are estimated to number between 12,000 and 15,000 people living in jungles east of the Andes.

"The situation is incredibly delicate," said Huerta, the government anthropologist.

"It's very clear that they don't want people there," she said of the area where the clan has been loitering, noting that it had ransacked a jungle ranger's post that authorities later removed.

One of the clan's likely fears is being decimated by disease borne by outsiders, as has occurred with other uncontacted peoples, Huerta said.

But its also a mystery why they have appeared in an area so heavily trafficked, she added.

After the first sightings, and after tourists left clothing for the Mashco-Piro, state authorities issued a directive in August barring all boats from going ashore in the area. But enforcing it has been difficult as there are few trained and willing local officials.

Authorities say they aren't sure why Flores was killed. It could be that the Mashco-Piro were angry because he hadn't provided them with more machetes and cooking pots. Or perhaps it was because they considered the farming plot where he was killed too close to what they considered their territory.

Cortijo, the Spanish archaeologist, said the loss of Flores makes reaching any understanding with the Mashco-Piro very complicated.

"The problem is that 'Shaco' was the only person who could talk to them," he said. "Now that he's dead it's impossible to make contact."

1.3.1.2 Proposed in 2007 'Transitory' Reserves for Mashco-Piro Indians

Accents


'Transitory' Reserves for Mashco-Piro Indians

By Abraham Lama*

Peru is trying to protect an indigenous group that has lived in voluntary isolation in the Amazon jungles since the 19th century. Little is known about this community, which is believed to have around 800 members.

LIMA - In Alto Purus province, in the far west of the Peruvian Amazon jungle, plans are being drawn up to create the first special reserve for an indigenous group that has almost no outside contact: the Mashco.

The Mashco (whose name means ''naked'') were given their name by other indigenous communities, but they are also known as the Mashco-Piro, and are one of the 11 indigenous peoples who live in voluntary isolation in the Peruvian Amazon since the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to escape the rubber barons who tried to enslave them.

Design of the plan for the reserve is just getting started. It has been entrusted to a special commission created by President Alejandro Toledo on Mar. 31. But anthropologist Linda Lema Tucker, one of the experts on the commission, told Tierramérica that the aim is to designate ''transitory territorial reserves'' for the Mashco, a sort of movable territory.

''For the 'contacted' indigenous communities we can designate a specific area, but not for the 'non-contacted', who need extensive routes in the forests so they can move about freely,'' said Lema Tucker, currently a consultant with the government's National Commission of Aboriginal Peoples.

The Mashco-Piro will be assigned ''transitory territorial reserves, under laws that protect their physical and cultural survival, until they decide, through their own community organizations, to obtain recognition and ownership titles over land,'' she said.

The protection plan for the Mashco is included in the creation of a protected area of Alto Purus, which, with 2.7 million hectares (slightly larger than Belgium), extends into Brazil like an arrow.

''Alto Purus is the piece that was missing in the great corridor of protected areas over 1,700 square kilometers, which crosses through Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. The voice of the Mashco-Piro and of other communities has been heard,'' Kathryn Fuller, president of the Peruvian office of the World Wildlife Fund, said on Mar. 31 when the Toledo government announced the creation of the protected area.

WWF has worked in the zone over the past five years with officials, indigenous groups and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to fight illegal logging, provide technical assistance in forest management, and launch community development projects.

The Amazon jungles might look like a green paradise from the window of an airplane or in postcards. But they are threatened areas, under tension -- the scene of depredation and social violence amongst its few dwellers, who are mostly poor and exploited.

Such is the case of Alto Purus, where no more than 5,000 people live. There are six tiny villages in the province, and just one city, Puerto Esperanza, with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

In the jungle live around 2,800 members of eight indigenous groups -- apart from the Mashco-Piro -- who maintain their millennia-old lifestyles and are precariously integrated into the rest of the country: Cashinahuas, Amahuacas, Sharanahuas, Chaninahuas, Mastinahuas, Yines, Ashaninkas and Culinas.

Loggers often hire the Indians to cut down the mahogany and cedar trees for their valuable wood, without permits or monitoring by the government. This leads to irregular displacement of communities, which in their search for more valuable timber invade the land of others, triggering violent clashes.

Peru, one of the six South American countries that share the Amazon, loses 265,000 hectares of tropical rainforest annually to logging.

Of all the Indians in Alto Purus, the Mashco-Piro are the least known. There are no reliable data on their population, although they are believed to number around 800, and are distributed amongst groups of 50 to 200 people, formed from several families.

They are extremely vulnerable because of the lack of laws to protect them and also because they lack immune-defenses against such common illnesses as the flu, which can kill them in massive numbers.

''My father told me that they always wander in the forest, without staying in one place. They eat everything: plants, animals, turtle eggs and fish. They come and go. Sometimes they cross into Brazil and back,'' said Leoncio Tomasa, chief of the Cashinahua, according to a recent official report.

''The Mashco-Piro are nomads who move freely through the forests, subsisting on what they are able to gather, hunt or fish. They have survived like fugitives in order to protect themselves from the outside world, which they continue to see as a threat,'' said anthropologist Lema Tucker.

She noted that the new commission will define which territories will be set aside for these nomads, as well as other practical aspects of the initiative, which will then be turned into a legislative bill.

* Abraham Lama is a Tierramérica contributor.

 1.3.2 Innocence can be beautiful but genetic disposition is real.

Innocence can be a beautiful thing. This past fall in Russia I would help care for my Russian granddaughter as Olga cared for her dying father. I don't speak Russian and Darina at 2.5 years old was just learning. To give her exercise we would go for long walks. The first time she had to pee I didn't know what to do and as she pulled down her pants and peed she got them all wet. The next time on a walk I knew to hold her legs up from behind. The next time I did better but after peeing she moved to another spot  and bent down. It took me a while to catch on that she needed to poop. But I caught on in time and held her again and we found some leaves to wipe with. (that is how we did it in the woods when I was a boy.) The point is that she was so innocent and trusting taking my hand to cross the street and walking nice with me.

Innocent times like that  are times in the Garden of Eden! I had them with my father squirrel hunting where you sit still and wait so long that the chipmunks come out and play around you.

We have already discovered that the tree of the knowledge of good and evil was recognizing that a child had only one father and the women used that knowledge to make the man guilty which led to men demanding that a women have only one man so they could be sure who the father was.

The snake that corrupted womankind can be understood by the millions of years of tribal violence to take the booty and young women of another tribe. The snake is the penis of rape! This tied her to the man this took her virginity as the father of her children.

In the Caucasus where my Russian home is some none Russian Muslim cultures are still getting brides by "stealing" them. The young woman is stolen and violated into what they call a marriage. Then the violator's family offers money to the family of the stolen woman. The woman is already violated and would not be valued if restored to her family and refusal to accept the payment may result in a family feud and deaths. 

A young woman with her son is friends with a neighbor visiting frequently. She told Olga that she was "stolen" as if it was just matter of fact. This young woman has not yet eaten fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She does not hate or criminalize her husband. That is just the way it is!

That is a strain of humanity that has never died out the same behavior goes on with the same outlook and culture from generation to generation with no individual sovereignty!

In my upper middle class suburban High School to further black integration in the 1970's they built a bunch of subsidized rent apartments complexes to move blacks out of the inner city. In a faculty meeting the Assistant Principle brought up a serious concern for the Black Girls. The black boys preferred white girls and many white girls preferred black boys. But the white boys were not attracted to the black girls so nobody asked the black girls to the school dances and when they went on their own nobody asked them to dance.

I was surprised to hear about the functional social hierarchy in the plantation south. The white owner was on the top. But next came the black house women. They cared for the children, cleaned the bedrooms, prepared the food and served the personal needs of the owner. The white women came third. All she needed to do was look pretty and have white children as heirs for the owner. Forth came the black field workers.

I thought this was a black and white situation until I went to Russia. Here again were the four classes of social power. The landlords and official men on top. Next was the house and social servant women (with some men) and then came the field workers but they were all white.

Next it turned out that the darker Muslim men were attracted to the lighter Russian women and visa versa. Also the Russian men are not attracted to the darker Muslim women like at the high school. Then I talked to Veterans from the second world war, and wars since then to find out that it is not the color that makes the attraction, it is the status that seem to trigger a genetic response. That is that women tend to be  attracted to the invader and men are not. Men are attracted to women they are invading.

When viewing the long history of hunter-gather violence it begins to make sense. The women that embraced their captor tended to survive and propagate where women who fought the invader were dead. At the same time the men that embraced strange women had genetically healthier children by avoiding in breeding.

It is just on of God's laws, "WHAT SURVIVES TENDS TO PROPAGATE WHERE THAT THAT DOESN'T, DOESN'T!" That is another no-brainer.

1.4 The original Native Americans: stone age Europeans discovered the New World

Published: 19 February, 2012, 00:14 http://rt.com/news/stone-age-america-archaeologists-445/

 

Diorama of a scene where ancient people are hunting mammoths. Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Academy of Sciences, in St. Petersburg (RIA Novosti)

Diorama of a scene where ancient people are hunting mammoths. Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Academy of Sciences, in St. Petersburg (RIA Novosti)

Europeans may have been the first people to settle in America, possibly more than ten thousand years before anyone else set foot there.

­A series of European-style tools dating from twenty-six-thousand to nineteen-thousand years ago have been discovered in six separate locations along the east coast of the United States.

Archaeologists previously thought that America was populated by migrants making their way from Siberia to Alaska, and then spreading through the rest of the continent.

But the first of these Asian tribes started moving there about 15,500 years ago – and there is no evidence of human activity in Siberia or Alaska from before that time.

Professors Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradford, the two archaeologists who made the discovery, suggest Europeans moved across the Atlantic during the peak of Ice Age.

At the time, a vast tranche of ice covered the Atlantic. The Stone Age migrants would have been able to survive the journey by killing seals, hunting the now-extinct great auks (a sort of giant penguin) and fishing. The archaeologists suggest they may have even used boats for large parts of their travel.

Further evidence of their thesis is a knife discovered in Virginia in 1971. Recent tests showed that it was made from French flint.

The new hypothesis is unlikely to change what we know about the Indians who greeted the Europeans upon their arrival.

The Siberian migrants came to America for longer and in greater numbers, and were either wiped out or absorbed by the European tribes.

But it does explain the long-standing mystery of the genetic code and language of some Native American tribes that appear European, not Asian in origin.

Further digs are planned deeper inland up to Texas this year, and will help historians and archaeologists understand just how far the original European colonization went.


Constructing the Solutrean Solution Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley Smithsonian Institution University of Exeter

Abstract:

At the 1999 Clovis and Beyond Conference held in Santa Fe, we presented a hypothesis, now known as the "Solutrean Solution", to explain the origin of Clovis technology. The hypothesis is based on the fact that there is little commonality between Clovis and Northeast Asian technologies on the one hand, while on the other, there are many technological traits shared between Clovis and the Solutrean culture of Paleolithic Europe. In the past, scholars have rejected the idea of a historical connection between the two cultures because they were separated temporally by 5,000 years and geographically by 4,000 miles of North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, it is clear that modern Native Americans are Asian in origin. Hence, the similarities were considered the result of independent invention.

We point out that the idea of independent invention is an unsupported opinion and not a tested hypothesis. In contrast, we outline a testable model with supporting evidence such as the occupation levels found at the Meadowcroft and Cactus Hill sites with pre-Clovis dates that fill the time gap. The pre-Clovis levels also contained biface and blade/core technologies that we would expect in an artifact assemblage transitional between Solutrean and Clovis. We argue that during the 20,000 years that lapsed between the beginning of maritime technology in Southeast Asia and the advent of Solutrean in Southwest Europe, major developments in sea going technologies and skills likely spread around the coastal waters of the inhabited world. We also point out that during Solutrean times lower sea levels greatly reduced the distance between the Celtic and the North American Continental Shelves and a connecting ice bridge eliminated the necessity of a 4,000-mile blue voyage between Lisbon and New York City. The southern margin of this ice bridge was a relative rich environment inhabited by migrating sea mammals, birds, and fish attracting Solutrean people. We reason that generations of Solutrean hunters learned to cope with ice and weather conditions to follow rich resources such as Harp seals and Great Auks that migrated north and westward along with retreating ice in late spring. Through such activities they ended up (by accident and/or design) along the exposed continental shelf of North America discovering a new land.

This paper summarizes the results of six years of intensive research in which we assessed the available interdisciplinary evidence to see if the Solutrean Solution Model is supported or should be rejected. Our conclusion is that there is strong and compelling supporting data and the model merits serious consideration. In this regard, we address the issues and opinions raised by other scholars who published negative "peer reviewed" papers seeking to "deconstruct the Solutrean Solution" before we completed our studies. Our paper concludes with evidence to support the view that Clovis developed out of an indented base biface tradition that existed along the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf.

Dr. Dennis Stanford Dr. Dennis Stanford is Curator of Archaeology and Chairman of the Anthropology Department at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (www.mnh.si.edu/). He has devoted his career to early American prehistory, and done field work from Alaska to Monte Verde in Chile, where the oldest human remains in the Americas were found. With his Smithsonian colleague Bruce Bradley, he is working on the possibility that Clovis points, first found in North America around 11,000 years ago, derive from similar flaking techniques developed thousands of years earlier in Spain. The idea may have been brought here by an early visitor who travelled by boat. Such a traveler might have traveled along the edge of an icecap which rimmed the North Atlantic during the Ice Age. Dr. Stanford is also one of the eight archaeologists suing the U.S. government to make the Kennewick Man available for study. An article on his theories about the link between European and American flaking technology can be found at http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/arctic/html/dennis_stanford.html -- part of a Smithsonian web site called "Northern Clans, Northern Traces." His recent publications include the book Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies (1992, Boulder: University Press of Colorado), which he edited with Jane Day and to which he contributes an introduction and an article. He edited an earlier book, Pre-Llano cultures of the Americas: paradoxes and possibilities, with Robert L.Humphrey (Washington, DC : Anthropological Society of Washington, 1979) He is working on a book about his theory of an early North Atlantic crossing.

Dr. Bruce Bradley Dr. Bruce Bradley is a professional archaeologist who is currently an independent consultant, Research Associate at the Carnegie Museum, and adjunct Professor at Augustana College. He received a BA in anthropology from the University of Arizona and a PhD in archaeology from Cambridge University. His experience has taken him to projects ranging from Stone Age digs in England, France, Lebanon, Kazakhstan, and Russia; Paleoindian sites, including Clovis, in Wyoming and Colorado; and he has conducted some of the research in the northern Southwest that is redefining ancient Pueblo history.

Bruce is also known throughout the world as a master flintknapper. Highly respected in the professional archaeology community, he is also active in the amateur community and leads archaeological excursions in the Southwest and Ireland, and has lead groups of amateurs and professionals in excavations in the Southwest, Texas, Russia and Spain.

He is proud to have received the C.T. Hurst Award from the Colorado Archaeological Society for outstanding contributions to Colorado archaeology. Bruce has been featured in numerous documentaries and is frequently sought out by authors and filmmakers for technical advice. He has received research support from the International Research Exchanges, National Science Foundation, and National Geographic, and worked for such prominent institutions as the Smithsonian, the University of Wyoming, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Institute of Material Culture History, St. Petersburg, and the Archaeological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Bruce is currently working on a book, with Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian, about the possibility that Clovis Culture had historical connections to the Solutrean Culture of Southwest Europe. This theory brings people across the Atlantic Ocean at the end of the last Ice Age.

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