5 Chapter 

0 Contents 1 Foundation 1.2 Prehistoric

Chapter 7

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Index

1.2 Prehistoric Origin Of Mathematics
(Including The Study Of Myths And Examples Of Academic Ignorance)

Chapter 6 Why The Big Boats And Prehistoric Ocean Sailing?

(Writing And Numbers Came From A Prehistoric Civilization -
Prehistoric knowledge was not magic but from experiencing reality)

6 Why the big boats and prehistoric ocean sailing?
6.1 Wooden boats give us clues to the prehistoric past.
6.2 The beginning of prehistoric long range sailing.
6.3 Megaliths give clues to prehistoric sailing.
6.4 Dolman give us clues to prehistoric ocean sailing.
6.5 Minerals give us clues to prehistoric ocean sailing.

6 Why the big boats and prehistoric ocean sailing?

Of course big crews that could work together were needed to hunt and kill a mammoth so the crew skills were already part of the culture. But as the animals became depleted they needed to travel farther and farther to find them and then the problem of transporting them was best solved by floating them down the river. If you saw the size of the Don River you could understand the motivation to develop sailing skills. This happens naturally as one learns that the wind can blow them up river against the flow so why not use the wind!

The big boats were developed to haul the mammoth meat home from a kill. They weighed around 20 000 kg or 45 000 Lbs. As the the mammoths declined they sailed farther and farther.

While these early boats and rafts were wood and decayed we still find traces.

6.1 Wooden boats give us clues to the prehistoric past.

Image: Well-preserved wooden vessel Petar Petrov / AP Archaeologist Dimitar Nedkov, measures the length of a well-preserved wooden vessel, likely dating back to the prehistoric age discovered at the bottom of the Black Sea.

stacks_image_29587674-DB08-41D1-9532-C6BBA7C735FF

Log Boat (Ceylon)

Explorers find ancient boat in Black Sea 11/29/2008. Vessel discovered by fishermen trailing nets along the sea bottom.

A well-preserved wooden dugout canoe, likely dating back to the prehistoric age, has been discovered at the bottom of the Black Sea, scientists said Saturday.

The vessel was discovered by fishermen trailing nets along the sea bottom some 15 miles off the coast, said Dimitar Nedkov, head of the Archaeological Museum in the port city of Sozopol.

"The dugout is 8.5 feet long and 27.5 inches wide, and it is made most probably of oak," Nedkov said.

Bulgarian explorers have found 4 ancient vessels in remarkably good condition in the Black Sea, whose oxygen-depleted deep water preserves wrecks without the worm damage and deterioration that normally affects wooden vessels.

"Nowhere else can you find similar dugouts, as well as any kind of wooden vessels over 300 years old, because water rots the wood away," Dimitrov said. "In the Black Sea, however, there is dissolved hydrogen sulfide below a certain depth which preserves all organic materials."

Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


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6.2 The beginning of prehistoric long range sailing.

The beginning of prehistoric long range sailing and boating likely looked like that known travels of the Vikings but it extended into the pacific ocean and may have been a major part of the European migrations into Persia and India. The ocean sailing ocean sailing skill were discovered before 10,000 bc and the horse was not domesticated until about 4,000 bc.

6.3 Megaliths give us clues to prehistoric ocean sailing.

Megalith

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Contents

Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany

Clooneen wedge tomb, the Burren, Co. Clare, Ireland

Stonehenge, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, is one of the world's best known megalithic structures.

 

Introduction

A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement.

The word 'megalith' comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας megas meaning great, and λίθος lithos meaning stone. Megalith also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes.[1][2][3] It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of large stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral.[4] The construction of these structures took place mainly in the Neolithic (though earlier Mesolithic examples are known) and continued into the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age.[5]

Early stone complexes in eastern Turkey

Part of a megalithic structure at Gbekli Tepe (Turkey).

At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered[citation needed]. They belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a typical feature, e.g. at Nevali Cori and Gbekli Tepe. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, it is not clear that any of the European Megalithic traditions (see below) are actually derived from them.[6] At Gbekli Tepe four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across. The stones carry carved reliefs of boars, foxes, lions, birds, snakes and scorpions.[7]

European megaliths

The most common type of megalithic construction in Europe is the portal tomb a chamber consisting of upright stones (orthostats) with one or more large flat capstones forming a roof. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function. Though generally known as dolmens the correct term accepted by archaeologists is portal tomb. However many local names exist, such as anta in Portugal, stazzone in Sardinia, hunebed in the Netherlands, Hnengrab in Germany, dysse in Denmark, and cromlech in Wales. It is assumed that most portal tombs were originally covered by earthen mounds.

The second-most-common tomb type is the passage grave. It normally consists of a square, circular, or cruciform chamber with a slabbed or corbelled roof, accessed by a long, straight passageway, with the whole structure covered by a circular mound of earth. Sometimes it is also surrounded by an external stone kerb. Prominent examples include the sites of Br na Binne and Carrowmore in Ireland, Maes Howe in Orkney, and Gavrinis in France.

The third tomb type is a diverse group known as gallery graves. These are axially arranged chambers placed under elongated mounds. The Irish court tombs, British long barrows, and German Steinkisten belong to this group.

Another type of megalithic monument is the single standing stone, or menhir. Some of these are thought to have an astronomical function as a marker or foresight, and, in some areas, long and complex alignments of such stones exist, for example, at Carnac in Brittany.

In parts of Britain and Ireland the best-known type of megalithic construction is the stone circle, of which examples include Stonehenge, Avebury, Ring of Brodgar, and Beltany. These, too, display evidence of astronomical alignments, both solar and lunar. Stonehenge, for example, is famous for its solstice alignment. Examples of stone circles are also found in the rest of Europe. They are assumed to be of later date than the tombs, straddling the Neolithic and the Bronze Ages.

Tombs

Large T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands.

At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered[citation

Megalithic tombs are aboveground burial chambers, built of large stone slabs (megaliths) laid on edge and covered with earth or other, smaller stones. They are a type of chamber tomb, and the term is used to describe the structures built across Atlantic Europe, the Mediterranean, and neighbouring regions, mostly during the Neolithic period, by Neolithic farming communities. They differ from the contemporary long barrows through their structural use of stone.

There is a huge variety of megalithic tombs. The free-standing single chamber dolmens and portal dolmens found in Brittany, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Sweden, Wales, and elsewhere consist of a large flat stone supported by three, four, or more standing stones. They were covered by a stone cairn or earth barrow.

Examples with outer areas, not used for burial, are also known. The Court Cairns of southwest Scotland and northern Ireland, the Severn-Cotswold tombs of southwest England and the Transepted gallery graves of the Loire region in France share many internal features, although the links between them are not yet fully understood. That they often have antechambers or forecourts is thought to imply a desire on the part of the builders to emphasize a special ritual or physical separation of the dead from the living.

The Passage graves of Orkney, Ireland's Boyne Valley, and north Wales are even more complex and impressive, with cross-shaped arrangements of chambers and passages. The workmanship on the stone blocks at Maeshowe for example is unknown elsewhere in northwest Europe at the time.

Megalithic tombs appear to have been used by communities for the long-term deposition of the remains of their dead, and some seem to have undergone alteration and enlargement. The organization and effort required to erect these large stones suggest that the societies concerned placed great emphasis on the proper treatment of their dead. The ritual significance of the tombs is supported by the presence of megalithic art carved into the stones at some sites. Hearths and deposits of pottery and animal bone found by archaeologists around some tombs also implies that some form of burial feast or sacrificial rites took place there.

Further examples of megalithic tombs include the stalled cairn at Midhowe in Orkney and the passage grave at Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey. Despite its name, the Stone Tomb in Ukraine was not a tomb but rather a sanctuary.

Other structures

Associated with the megalithic constructions across Europe, there are often large earthworks of various designs ditches and banks, broad terraces, circular enclosures known as henges, and frequently artificial mounds such as Silbury Hill in England and Monte dAccoddi in Sardinia. Sometimes, as at Glastonbury Tor in England, it is suggested that a natural hill has been artificially sculpted to form a maze or spiral pattern in the turf.

It seems that spirals were an important motif for the megalith builders, and have been found carved into megalithic structures all over Europe along with other symbols such as lozenges, eye-patterns, zigzags in various configurations, and cup and ring marks. While not a written script in the modern sense of the term, these symbols are considered to have conveyed meaning to their creators, and are remarkably consistent across the whole of Western Europe.

Spread of megalithic architecture in Europe

In Western Europe and the Mediterranean, megaliths are, in general, constructions erected during the Neolithic or late stone age and Chalcolithic or Copper Age (4500-1500 BC). Perhaps the most famous megalithic structure is Stonehenge in England, although many others are known throughout the world. The French Comte de Caylus was the first to describe the Carnac stones. Legrand d'Aussy introduced the terms menhir and dolmen, both taken from the Breton language, into antiquarian terminology. He interpreted megaliths as gallic tombs. In Britain, the antiquarians Aubrey and Stukeley conducted early research into megaliths. In 1805, Jacques Cambry published a book called Monuments celtiques, ou recherches sur le culte des Pierres, prcdes d'une notice sur les Celtes et sur les Druides, et suivies d'Etymologie celtiques, where he proposed a Celtic stone cult. This completely unfounded connection between druids and megaliths has haunted the public imagination ever since . In Belgium, there is a megalithic site at Wris, a little town situated in the Ardennes. In the Netherlands, megalithic structures can be found in the northeast of the country, mostly in the province of Drenthe. Knowth is a passage grave of the Br na Binne neolithic complex in Ireland, dating from c.3500-3000 BC. It contains more than a third of the total number of examples of megalithic art in all Western Europe, with over 200 decorated stones found during excavations.

Timeline of megalithic construction

Spread of megalithic culture in Europe

Mesolithic

Excavation of some Megalithic monuments (in Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, and France) has revealed evidence of ritual activity, sometimes involving architecture, from the Mesolithic, i.e., predating the Neolithic monuments by centuries or millennia. Caveats apply: In some cases, they are so far removed in time from their successors that continuity is unlikely; in other cases, the early dates, or the exact character of activity, are controversial.

Neolithic

Chalcolithic

Bronze Age

African megaliths

Nabta Playa

Nabta megalith

Nabta Playa at the southwest corner of the western Egyptian desert was once a large lake in the Nubian Desert, located 500 miles south of modern-day Cairo.[8] By the 5th millennium BC, the peoples in Nabta Playa had fashioned the world's earliest known astronomical device, 1000 years older than, but comparable to, Stonehenge.[9] Research shows it to be a prehistoric calendar that accurately marks the summer solstice.[9] Findings indicate that the region was occupied only seasonally, likely only in the summer when the local lake filled with water for grazing cattle.[9][10] There are other megalithic stone circles in the southwestern desert.

Middle Eastern megaliths

Dolmens and standing stones have been found in large areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo, southwards down to Yemen. They can be encountered in northern Lebanon, southern Syria, Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. The most concentrated occurrence of dolmen in particular is in a large area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side. They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, and in Jordan, which probably has the largest concentration of dolmen in the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, only very few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz. They seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, and thus could indicate a continuous tradition related to those of Somalia and Ethiopia.

The standing stone has a very ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times. Although not always 'megalithic' in the true sense, they occur throughout the Orient, and can reach 5 metres or more in some cases (such as Ader in Jordan). This phenomenon can also be traced through many passages from the Old Testament, such as those related to Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, who poured oil over a stone that he erected after his famous dream in which angels climbed to heaven (Genesis 28:10-22). Jacob is also described as putting up stones at other occasions, whereas Moses erected twelve pillars symbolizing the tribes of Israel. The tradition of venerating (standing) stones continued in Nabatean times and is reflected in, e.g., the Islamic rituals surrounding the Kaaba and nearby pillars. Related phenomena, such as cupholes, rock-cut tombs and circles also occur in the Middle East.

Asian megaliths

Northern-style megalithic burial from Jukrim-ri, Gochang-eub, North Jeolla Province, Korea.

Megalithic burials are found in Northeast and Southeast Asia. They are found mainly in the Korean Peninsula. They are also found in the Liaoning, Shandong, and Zhejiang in China, Kyūshū and Shikoku in Japan, Dong Nai province in Vietnam and parts of Pakistan and India. Some living megalithic traditions is found on the island of Sumba and Nias in Indonesia. The greatest concentration of megalithic burials is in Korea. Archaeologists estimate that there are 15,000 to 100,000 southern megaliths in the Korean Peninsula.[11][12] Typical estimates hover around the 30,000 mark for the entire peninsula, which in itself constitutes some 40% of all dolmens worldwide (see Dolmen).

Northern style

Northeast Asian megalithic traditions originated in northeast China, in particular the Liao River basin.[13][14] The practice of erecting megalithic burials spread quickly from the Liao River Basin and into the Korean Peninsula, where the structure of megaliths is geographically and chronologically distinct. The earliest megalithic burials are called "northern" or "table-style" because they feature an above-ground burial chamber formed by heavy stone slabs that form a rectangular cist.[15] An oversized capstone is placed over the stone slab burial chamber, giving the appearance of a table-top. These megalithic burials date to the early part of the Mumun Pottery Period (c. 1500-850 BC) and are distributed, with a few exceptions, north of the Han River. Few northern-style megaliths in northeast China contain grave goods such as Liaoning bronze daggers, prompting some archaeologists to interpret the burials as the graves of chiefs or preeminent individuals.[16] However, whether a result of grave-robbery or intentional mortuary behaviour, most northern megaliths contain no grave goods.

Southern style

Southern-style megalithic burials are distributed in the southern Korean Peninsula. It is thought that most of them date to the latter part of the Early Mumun or to the Middle Mumun Period.[15][16] Southern-style megaliths are typically smaller in scale than northern megaliths. The interment area of southern megaliths has an underground burial chamber made of earth or lined with thin stone slabs. A massive capstone is placed over the interment area and is supported by smaller propping stones. Most of the megalithic burials on the Korean Peninsula are of the southern type.

Representations of a dagger (right) and two human figures, one of which is kneeling (left), carved into the capstone of Megalithic Burial No. 5, Orim-dong, Yeosu, Korea.

As with northern megaliths, southern examples contain few, if any, artifacts. However, a small number of megalithic burials contain fine red-burnished pottery, bronze daggers, polished groundstone daggers, and greenstone ornaments. Southern megalithic burials are often found in groups, spread out in lines that are parallel with the direction of streams. Megalithic cemeteries contain burials that are linked together by low stone platforms made from large river cobbles. Broken red-burnished pottery and charred wood found on these platforms has led archaeologists to hypothesize that these platform were sometimes used for ceremonies and rituals.[17] The capstones of many southern megaliths have 'cup-marks' carvings. A small number of capstones have human and dagger representations.

Capstone-style

These megaliths are distinguished from other types by the presence of a burial shaft, sometimes up to 4 m in depth, which is lined with large cobbles.[18] A large capstone is placed over the burial shaft without propping stones. Capstone-style megaliths are the most monumental type in the Korean Peninsula, and they are primarily distributed near or on the south coast of Korea. It seems that most of these burials date to the latter part of the Middle Mumun (c. 700-550 BC), and they may have been built into the early part of the Late Mumun. An example is found near modern Changwon at Deokcheon-ni, where a small cemetery contained a capstone burial (No. 1) with a massive, rectangularly shaped, stone and earthen platform. Archaeologists were not able to recover the entire feature, but the low platform was at least 56 X 18 m in size.

Living megalith culture of Indonesia

People on Nias Island in Indonesia move a megalith to a circa 19. Digitally restored.

Toraja monolith, circa 1935.

Indonesian archipelago is the host of Austronesian megalith cultures in past and present. Living megalith culture can be found in Nias, an isolated island offcoast western North Sumatra, Batak culture in interior North Sumatra, Sumba island in East Nusa Tenggara, also Toraja culture in interior South Sulawesi. These megalith cultures remain preserved, isolated and undisturbed well until late 19th century.

Several megalith sites and structures also found across Indonesia. Menhirs, dolmens, stone tables, ancestral stone statues, and step pyramids structure called Punden Berundak were discovered in various sites in Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Lesser Sunda Islands.

Punden step pyramid and menhir can be found in Pagguyangan Cisolok and Gunung Padang, West Java. Cipari megalith site also in West Java displayed monolith, stone terraces, and sarcophagus.[19] The Punden step pyramid is believed to be the predecessor and basic design of later Hindu-Buddhist temples structure in Java after the adoption of Hinduism and Buddhism by native population. The 8th century Borobudur and 15th-century Candi Sukuh featured the step-pyramid structure.

Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi houses ancient megalith relics such as ancestral stone statues. Mostly located in the Bada, Besoa and Napu valleys.[20]

Madia Gonds of Maharashtra, India

A study[21] mentions living megalithic practices amongst the Madia Gonds. The Madia Gonds live in Bhamragad Taluka of Gadchiroli District of Maharashtra, India.

Analysis and evaluation

Megaliths were used for a variety of purposes. The purpose of megaliths ranged from serving as boundary markers of territory, to a reminder of past events, to being part of the society's religion.[22] Common motifs including crooks and axes seem to be symbols of political power, much like the crook was a symbol of Egyptian pharaohs. Amongst the indigenous peoples of India, Malaysia, Polynesia, North Africa, North America, and South America, the worship of these stones, or the use of these stones to symbolize a spirit or deity, is a possibility.[23] In the early 20th century, some scholars believed that all megaliths belonged to one global "Megalithic culture"[24] (hyperdiffusionism, e. g. 'the Manchester school',[25] by Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry), but this has long been disproved by modern dating methods.[citation needed] Nor is it believed any longer that there was a European megalithic culture, although regional cultures existed, even within such a small areas as the British Isles. The archaeologist Euan Mackie wrote "Likewise it cannot be doubted that important regional cultures existed in the Neolithic period and can be defined by different kinds of stone circles and local pottery styles (Ruggles & Barclay 2000: figure 1). No-one has ever been rash enough to claim a nation-wide unity of all aspects of Neolithic archaeology!" [26]

Types of megalithic structures

The types of megalithic structures can be divided into two categories, the "Polylithic type" and the "Monolithic type".[27] Different megalithic structures include:

Polylithic type

Monolithic type

Gallery

Inside the burial chamber at Mane Braz, Brittany, France

Menhirs at the Almendres Cromlech, vora, Portugal

Megalithic tomb in Khakasiya, Russian Federation

Megalithic tomb in Khakasiya, Russian Federation

Capstones of southern-style megalithic burials in Guam-ri, Jeollabuk-do, Korea

Ale's Stones at Kseberga, around ten kilometres south east of Ystad, Sweden

Deer stone near Mrn in Mongolia

the Great Menhir of Er Grah, the largest known single stone erected by Neolithic man, later toppled.

Menhir in the Cham des Bondons site, Lozre, France.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Glossary. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

  2. ^ Glossary. labyrinth.net.au.

  3. ^ Glossary. wordnet.princeton.edu.

  4. ^ Rochester's history ~ an illustrated timeline. glossary of cemetery terms

  5. ^ Johnson, W. (1908) p.67

  6. ^ Mithen, S. (2003), After the Ice - A Global Human History, 20,000-5,000 BC, London, 62-71

  7. ^ The Guardian report 23 April 2008

  8. ^ Andrew L. Slayman (May 27, 1998). "Neolithic Skywatchers". Archaeology. http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/nubia.html. Retrieved 2007-03-21.

  9. ^ a b c Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild (March 1998). Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt. The Comparative Archaeology WEB. http://www.comp-archaeology.org/WendorfSAA98.html. Retrieved 2007-03-31.

  10. ^ J. Clendenon. "Nabta". http://hej3.as.utexas.edu/~www/wheel/africa/nabta_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-21.

  11. ^ Goindol [Megalith] in Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (ed.) NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5 pp. 72-75.

  12. ^ Rhee, Song-nai and Choi, Mong-lyong (1992) "Emergence of Complex Society in Prehistoric Korea" in Journal of World Prehistory 6(1):68

  13. ^ Rhee and Choi (1992): 70

  14. ^ Nelson, Sarah M. (1999) "Megalithic Monuments and the Introduction of Rice into Korea" in The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change. C. Gosden and J. Hather (eds.) Routledge, London. pp.147-165

  15. ^ a b Rhee and Choi (1992): 68

  16. ^ a b Nelson (1999)

  17. ^ GARI [Gyeongnam Archaeological Research Institute] (2002) Jinju Daepyeong Okbang 1 - 9 Jigu Mumun Sidae Jibrak [The Mumun Period Settlement at Localities 1 - 9, Okbang in Daepyeong, Jinju]. GARI, Jinju.

  18. ^ Bale, Martin T. "Excavations of Large-scale Megalithic Burials at Yulha-ri, Gimhae-si, Gyeongsang Nam-do" in Early Korea Project. Korea Institute, Harvard University. Retrieved 10 October 2007

  19. ^ [1]|Cipari archaeological park discloses prehistoric life in West Java.

  20. ^ [2]|Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi.

  21. ^ Anuja, Geetali (2002). "Living Megalithic practices amongst the Madia gonds of Bhamragad, District Gadchiroli, Maharashtra". Puratattva 32 (1): 244. http://www.indarchaeology.org/puratattva/puratattva_32.htm

  22. ^ d'Alviella, Goblet, et al. (1892) pp.22-23

  23. ^ Goblet, et al. (1892) p.23

  24. ^ Gaillard, Grald (2004) The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists. Routledge. ISBN 0415228255 p.48

  25. ^ Lancaster Brown, P. (1976) p.267

  26. ^ Mackoe, Euan W, "The structure and skills of British Neolithic Society: a brief response to Clive Ruggles & Gordon Barclay. (Response)", Antiquity September 2002

  27. ^ Keane, A. H. (1896) p.124

  28. ^ Lancaster (1976). Page 6. (cf., French word alignement is used to describe standing stones arranged in rows to form long processional' avenues)

References

Articles

  • A Fleming, Megaliths and post-modernism. The case of Wales. Antiquity, 2005.

  • A Fleming, Phenomenology and the Megaliths of Wales: a Dreaming Too Far?. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 1999

  • A Sherratt, The Genesis of Megaliths. World Archaeology. 1990. (JSTOR)

  • A Thom, Megaliths and Mathematics. Antiquity, 1966.

  • D Turnbull, Performance and Narrative, Bodies and Movement in the Construction of Places and Objects, Spaces and Knowledges: The Case of the Maltese Megaliths. Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 19, No. 5-6, 125-143 (2002) DOI 10.1177/026327602761899183

  • G Kubler, Period, Style and Meaning in Ancient American Art. New Literary History, Vol. 1, No. 2, A Symposium on Periods (Winter, 1970), pp. 127144. doi:10.2307/468624

  • HJ Fleure, HJE Peake, Megaliths and Beakers. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 60, Jan. - Jun., 1930 (Jan. - Jun., 1930), pp. 4771. doi:10.2307/2843859

  • J McKim Malville, F Wendorf, AA Mazar, R Schild, Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt. Nature, 1998.

  • KL Feder, Irrationality and Popular Archaeology. American Antiquity, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Jul., 1984), pp. 525541. doi:10.2307/280358

  • Hiscock, P. 1996. The New Age of alternative archaeology of Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 31(3):152-164

  • MW Ovenden, DA Rodger, Megaliths and Medicine Wheels. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 1978

Books

  • Parker, Joanne (editor) (2009). Written On Stone: The Cultural Reception of British Prehistoric Monuments (Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2009). ISBN 1-4438-1338-9

  • Scheltema, H.G. (2008). Megalithic Jordan; an introduction and field guide. Amman, Jordan: The American Center of Oriental Research. ISBN 978-9957-8543-3-1

  • Goblet d'Alviella, E., & Wicksteed, P. H. (1892). Lectures on the origin and growth of the conception of God as illustrated by anthropology and history. London: Williams and Norgate.

  • Keane, A. H. (1896). Ethnology. Cambridge: University Press.

  • Johnson, W. (1908). Folk-memory. Oxford: Clarendon press.

  • Tyler, J. M. (1921). The new stone age in northern Europe. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.

  • Daniel, G. E. (1963). The megalith builders of Western Europe. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

  • Deo, S. B. (1973). Problem of South Indian megaliths. Dharwar: Kannada Research Institute, Karnatak University.

  • Asthana, S. (1976). History and archaeology of India's contacts with other countries, from earliest times to 300 B.C.. Delhi: B.R. Pub. Corp.

  • Lancaster Brown, P. (1976). Megaliths, myths, and men: an introduction to astro-archaeology. New York: Taplinger Pub. Co.

  • Subbayya, K. K. (1978). Archaeology of Coorg with special reference to megaliths. Mysore: Geetha Book House.

  • O'Kelly, M. J., et al. (1989). Early Ireland: An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521336872

  • Patton, Mark (1993). Statements in Stone: monuments and society in Neolithic Brittany. Routledge. 209 pages. ISBN 0415067294

  • Piccolo, Salvatore (2007). Antiche Pietre. La cultura dei dolmen nella preistoria della Sicilia sud-orientale, Morrone ed. (Siracusa), ISBN 978-88-902640-7-8

  • Goudsward, D., & Stone, R. E. (2003). America's Stonehenge: the . Boston: Branden Books.

  • Moffett, M., Fazio, M. W., & Wodehouse, L. (2004). A world history of architecture. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

  • Nelson, Sarah M. (1993) The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  • Stukeley, W., Burl, A., & Mortimer, N. (2005). Stukeley's 'Stonehenge': an unpublished manuscript, 1721-1724. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press.

  • Jan Pohribn (photo) & Richards, J (introduction) (2007). Magic Stones; the secret world of ancient megaliths. London: Merrell. ISBN 978-1-85894-413-5

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Megalith&oldid=469275120"

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6.4 Dolmen give us clues to prehistoric ocean sailing.

Dolmen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Contents

 

Introduction

Circassian dolmen near the Zhane river, Russia

Dolmen in Salvatierra, Spain

Kilclooney dolmen near Ardara in County Donegal, Ireland

A dolmen, also known as a portal tomb, portal grave, or quoit, is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table). Most date from the early Neolithic period (4000 to 3000 BCE). Dolmens were usually covered with earth or smaller stones to form a barrow, though in many cases that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact.

It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made. The oldest known dolmen are found in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7000 years ago. This would date them alongside the ancient civilisations of Egypt, India and the Middle East.[citation needed] Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it. The most widely accepted theory[citation needed] is that all dolmen are tombs or burial chambers. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to them, which allowed a scientific dating. There is however no firm evidence that even this theory is correct. It has been impossible to prove that these archeologic remains date back to the time when the stones were set in place.[1]

Etymology

The term dolmen originates from the expression taol maen, which means "stone table" in Breton, and was first used archaeologically in Thophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne's Origines gauloises.[2] The etymology of the German Hnenbett or Hnengrab and Dutch Hunebed all evoke the image of giants building the structures. Of other Celtic languages, cromlech derives from Welsh and quoit is commonly used in Cornwall. Anta is the term used in Portugal and Galicia, Spain. Ds or dyss is used in Sweden. Since all the names come from languages used long after the dolmens were erected, they provide no indication of the intentions of the civilisations which constructed them.[3]

Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages including dolmain (Irish), cromlech (Welsh), anta (Portuguese and Galician), Hnengrab/Hnenbett (German), Adamra (Abkhazian), Ispun (Circassian), Hunebed (Dutch), ds (Swedish), and goindol (Korean).

Dolmen sites

T-shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands.

Dólmen da Aboboreira, Baião, Portugal.

The dolmen Er-Roc'h-Feutet in Carnac, Brittany, France.

Crucuno dolmen in Plouharnel, Brittany, France.

Europe

Megalithic tombs are found from the Baltic Sea and North Sea coasts south to Spain and Portugal. Hunebedden are chamber tombs similar to dolmens and date to the middle Neolithic (Funnelbeaker culture, 4th millennium BC). They consist of a kerb surrounding an oval mound which covered a rectangular chamber of stones with the entrance on one of the long sides. Some have a more complex layout and include an entrance passage giving them a T-shape. It has been suggested that this means they are related to the passage graves found in Denmark and elsewhere.

Dolmen sites fringe the Irish Sea and are found in south-east Ireland, Wales, Devon and Cornwall. In Ireland, however, dolmens are more to be found on the west coast, particularly in the Burren and Connemara, where some of the better-known examples, such as Poulnabrone dolmen, are to be found. Examples have also been found in northern Ireland where they may have co-existed with the court cairn tombs. It is thought that the dolmens themselves evolved from a simpler cist burial method.

A great many examples can also be found on the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey, such as La Pouquelaye de Faldouet, La Sergent and La Hougue des Gonnais. The term Houge is derived from the Old Norse word haugr meaning a mound or barrow. The most famous of these sites is La Hougue Bie, a 6,000 year old neolithic site that sits inside a large mound; later a chapel was built on the top of the mound.[4]

Amongst the vast Neolithic collections of the Carnac stones in Brittany, France, several dozen dolmens are found. And all around the country, several dolmens still stand, such as the ones of Passebonneau and des Gorces near Saint-Benot-du-Sault.

Various menhirs and dolmens are located around the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo. Pottery uncovered in these structures allowed the attribution of the monuments to the Tarxien cemetery culture of the Early Bronze Age.[5] This later culture is not to be confused with the Neolithic inhabitants of Malta, who built the Tarxien Temples circa 3100 BCE.

In France, important megalithic zones are situated in Brittany, Vende, Quercy and in the south of France (Languedoc, Rouergue and Corsica). More than 10,000 dolmens and menhirs cover a large part of the country (west and south). Importants menhirs alignments in Brittany (Carnac's alignments count more than 1,000 menhirs)

In Spain dolmens can be found in Galicia (such as Axeitos, pictured below), Basque Country and Navarre (like the Sorgin Etxea) and the basque name for theme is Trikuharri or Jentiletxe, Catalonia (like Cova d'en Daina or Creu d'en Cobertella), Andalusia (like the Cueva de Menga) and Extremadura (like "Dolmen de Lcara").

Dolmens can be found across Portugal, from simple ones [1] to the more complex examples of megalithic architecture, such as the Almendres Cromlech or the Anta Grande do Zambujeiro.

In Mecklenburg and Pomerania/Pomorze in (Germany) and (Poland), Drenthe (Netherlands), large numbers of these graves were disturbed when harbours, towns, and cities were built. The boulders were used in construction and road building. There are still many thousands left today in Europe.

In Italy dolmens can be found in Apulia, Sardinia and in Sicily where they are located in Mura Pregne (Palermo), Sciacca (Agrigento), Monte Bubbonia (Caltanissetta), Butera (Caltanissetta), Cava Lazzaro (Siracusa), Cava dei Servi (Ragusa), Avola (Siracusa).[6]

In Turkey, there are some dolmens in the Regions of Lalapasa and Suloglu in the Province of Edirne and the Regions of KOfcaz, Kirklareli and Demirkoy in the Province of Kirklareli, in the Eastern Thrace. They have been studied by Prof. Dr. Engin Beksa, since 2004. And also, some of so-called monuments are in the different regions of Anatolia, in Turkey.

There are interesting dolmens in the regions related to the Sakar and Rhodope and Stradja Mountains in Bulgaria.

The largest dolmen in Europe is the Brownshill Dolmen in County Carlow, Ireland. Its capstone weighs about 150 tonnes.[7]

Lanyon Quoit is a dolmen in Cornwall, 2 miles southeast of Morvah. It stands next to the road leading from Madron to Morvah. The capstone rested at 7 feet high with dimensions of 9 feet by 17.5 feet weighing 13.5 tons.

Dolmens of Marayoor, Kerala, South India

Dolmen at Marayoor, Kerala, India

 

Asia

Korea

 

The largest concentration of dolmen in the world is found on the Korean peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000 dolmen Korea counts for nearly 40% of the worlds total. The largest distribution is on the west coast area of South Korea. The Korean word for dolmen is goindol'(hangul:고인돌). It took a long time before serious studies of the Korean megalithic monuments were made. After 1945 new researches were conducted mostly by Korean scholars. As a consequence, despite of its importance the awareness of Korean megalithism is underrated in the rest of the world. Moreover the dolmen of Korea have a different morphology than the more widely known European dolmen. There are 3 main types in Korea, namely the table type, the go-table type and the unsupported capstone type. The dolmen in Ganghwa is a northern-type, table-shaped dolmen and is the biggest stone of this kind in South Korea, measuring 2.6 by 7.1 by 5.5 metres. There are many sub-types and different styles, which makes the Korean dolmenism particularly interesting.[8]

Due to its vast numbers and great variation in styles, it has not been possible yet to establish an absolute chronology of dolmens in Korea. It is generally accepted that the Korean megalithic culture emerged from the late Neolithic age, which brought agriculture to the peninsula, and existed throughout the Bronze Age. Thus, it is estimated that the Korean dolmens were built in the first millennium BC. Another important question remains unanswered. It cannot be said with certainty from where the megalithic culture of Korea originated, and therefore it is difficult to define its true cultural character. Similar dolmens can be found outside of Korea, in Manchuria, Shandong, and Kyushu. Yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean peninsula in the area of Northeastern Asia.

 

India

 

There are also dolmens in Kerala, South India, about 7 km from Marayoor near the small village of Pius Nagar, also known as Alinchuvad. These dolmens are set in clusters of two to five dolmens obviously for the burial of a family. There are hundreds of such dolmen clusters in the area. Apart from overground dolmens, underground burial chambers built with dressed stone slabs have also been discovered in Marayoor. All these dolmens are made from heavy granite slabs, mined using primitive technology. This was a burial ground for several centuries for a noble tribal dynasty known as Adi Cheras, the royal family, which rose as a paramount power in South India in the First Century CE. The Adi Chera tribe traded with the Egyptian and Roman empires of the time. Most of the overground dolmens found in Alinchuvad were made before the Iron Age since no tools were used to dress the granite slabs. On a nearby hill, granite dolmens made, using tools, are also seen. One is underground and the other is overground. The overground dolmen of this type was not used for burial. The length of the dolmens range from 11 ft to 4 ft. There are scores of 4 ft versions of underground type. They had two earthenware pots, one containing the ornaments and weapons of the individual and the other contained the cremation remains. Such underground dolmens are located in various places, like Chelamala, in Ernakulam District, Mattathipara, Muniyara, Panapilavu, etc. in the district of Idukki in Kerala State, where Marayoor also is located. It appears that the tribe continued to use this burial practice until the tribe was destroyed in the beginning of third century CE.

Middle East

Dolmens are also found in Israel, Syria and Jordan. Numerous large dolmens can be viewed in the Israeli National park at Gamla.

There are many examples of flint dolmens in the historical villages of Johfiyeh and Natifah in northern Jordan. The greatest number of dolmens can be found around Madaba, Like the ones at Al Faiha village 10 km to the west of Madaba city see Madaba dolmens . Also 2 dolmens found in Hisbone and the most been found at Zarqa Ma'in at Al-Murayghat which is getting destroyed now by gravel quarries see where have all the dolmens gone? .

 

Eurasia (North Western Caucasus) Circassia

Over 3,000 dolmens and other structures can be found in the North-Western Caucasus region in Russia, where more and more dolmens are discovered in the mountains each year.

See also

References

  1. ^ Guide to the Menhirs and other Megaliths of Central Brittany, Lewis S., 2009, Nezert Books, ISBN 952-270-595-2

  2. ^ Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne, Origines gauloises. Celles des plus anciens peuples de l'Europe puises dans leur vraie source ou recherche sur la langue, l'origine et les antiquits des Celto-bretons de l'Armorique, pour servir l'histoire ancienne et moderne de ce peuple et celle des Franais, 1792-97.

  3. ^ Des Dolmens pour les Morts, Joussaume R., 1985, Hachette, ISBN 2-01-008877-8

  4. ^ The Scandinavian Contribution in Normandy

  5. ^ Journal of European Archaeology (JEA), 5 (1997); Emilia Psztor and Curt Roslund: Orientation of Maltese dolmens.

  6. ^ Salvatore Piccolo, Antiche Pietre. La cultura dei dolmen nella Preistoria della Sicilia sud-orientale, Morrone ed., Siracusa 2007; see also http://www.megalithic.co.uk/user.php?op=userinfo&uname=Salvatore

  7. ^ Weir, A (1980). Early Ireland. A Field Guide. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. p. 101.

  8. ^ Megalithic Cultures in Asia, Kim Byung-mo, 1982, Hanyang University Press

Sources

  • Trifonov, V., 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St.Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from [2]

  • Kudin, M., 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path - Russian Megaliths. Available from [3]

  • Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996.

External links

6.5 Minerals also give us clues to prehistoric ocean sailing.

Origin of an ancient jade tool baffles scientists

Source of rock for 3,300-year-old gouge discovered in islands off New Guinea is puzzling

By

The discovery of a 3,300-year-old tool has led researchers to the rediscovery of a "lost" 20th-century manuscript and a "geochemically extraordinary" bit of earth.

Discovered on Emirau Island in the Bismark Archipelago (a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea), the 2-inch (5-centimeters) stone tool was probably used to carve, or gouge, wood. It seems to have fallen from a stilted house, landing in a tangle of coral reef that was eventually covered over by shifting sands.

The jade gouge may have been crafted by the Lapita people, who appeared in the western Pacific around 3,300 years ago, then spread across the Pacific to Samoa over a couple hundred years, and from there formed the ancestral population of the people we know as Polynesians, according to the researchers.

Courtesy of LiveScience Map of the area around eastern New Guinea showing the location of Emirau Island, where the jade artifact was found, and Torare River, the possible source of the rock.


The jade was found in the form of ten mottled, dark-green ornamental axes, or celts, excavated from an archaeological dig site on the island of Antigua in the West Indies, dating to about 250 to 500 A.D.
CREDIT: American Museum of Natural History

Jade gouges and axes have been found before in these areas, but what's interesting about the object is the type of jade it's made of: it seems to have come from a distant region. Perhaps these Lapita brought it from wherever they originated.

Green rocks
Jade is a general term for two types of tough rock those made of jadeite jade and another group of nephrite jade. The stones are both greenish in color, but nephrite jade is slightly softer, while jadeite jade is scarcer, mostly found in cultures from Central America and Mexico before Europeans arrived.

"In the Pacific, jadeite jade as ancient as this artifact is only known from Japan and its usage in Korea," study researcher George Harlow, of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, said in a statement. "It's never been described in the archaeological record of New Guinea."

Researchers from American Museum of Natural History studied the artifact with X-ray micro-diffraction, which bounces a small beam of X-rays off the specimen in order to find its atomic structure, and in turn, the minerals within the rock. A rock's mineral composition varies depending on what chemicals are in the ground when it forms. The signatures are so specific researchers can sometimes pinpoint the origin of rocks.

Surveying stone
"When we first looked at this artifact, it was very clear that it didn't match much of anything that anyone knew about jadeite jade," Harlow said. The artifact's chemical composition "makes very little sense based on how we know these rocks form."

The jadeite in the rock is different from the jadeite jades found in Japan and Korea at the time. It's missing certain elements and has more-than-expected amounts of others; the stone came from another geological source, but the researchers aren't sure where. The only chemical match the researchers knew of was a site in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

The story goes on to doubt it could travel that far.

5 The Reality Foundation Of Mathematics:

The foundation of mathematics in reality is clear to a thinking person that has enough hands-on experience with learning reality out of a need to know and in physical contact with physical reality. Not some one with a foundation of book learning or verbal indoctrination.

In later mammoth hunting they sailed longer and longer distances. On there way home sailing many days and nights they would not stop because the delay would spoil the meat. That is a no-brainer. So they had night watches. It was easy to see the nightly passage of the same star patterns over head. They could tell the time of night qualitatively (like late, early and midnight).

Sometimes it was cloudy and they wanted to know the time. Someone seeing a dripping skin bucket used it and took it as a rough clock. Then needing a more accurate clock they kept filling the drip bucket and caught the drips. They already used balances and same stone weights to know the load a boat would carry so it was simple to get same size pebbles and catching the drip water in an other bucket and finding the pebble weight to know the time of day on a full day and night basis.

They recognized that the daily overhead star pattern and sun's location were different at home than from their observations depending on how fare east or west they were from home. They used a hanging stone for vertical and the difference between the vertical and the line-of-sight angle to a star or the sun to tell the east-west angle difference between their location and home. They calibrated a days travel east or west to the drips of the clock. This gave them a way of knowing their longitude from home in terms of time or angle. Using home time on there drip clock they counted the drips (or pebble weights) they were to the east or west of home in time to travel or angle.

With the longer voyages they noticed a change in the north and south position of the stars with the time of year. By writing a picture of the angle of the line of sight to the North Pole location they could tell the time of year at home. By comparing the angle to the north pole by line of sight and comparing to the angle at home for that time of year they could tell the latitude. When sailing south of where they could observe the north pole they used known stars. With using the star patterns they realized that there were a few wondering stars (the planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn).

This was not magic it was just the world in which we live and move and have our being. This was just practical reality. They did respect the Sun for its light and warmth. They did respect the earth for the food it gave. They did respect the moon for the night light it gave. That is different than the insanity of believing they were intelligent beings and worshiping them or doing human sacrifice to them!

What brought about the corruption of sky knowledge form sailing to planet worship?

Sailing

1.5 Prehistory clashes of seafarers 
          and Horsemen 
          x
      1. Domestication of the horse
          
1.5 The domestication of the horse
1.8 Historical clash of seafarers,
          Horsemen and civilization
      1.8 Development of a ruling class corrupted child care

5 Chapter                            Chapter 7

6

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