3 Chapter 

0 Contents 1 Foundation 1-2 Prehistoric Origin Of Mathematics

Chapter 5

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Index

1-2 Chapter 4 Prehistoric Knowledge
(Including The Study Of Myths And Examples Of Academic Ignorance)

4 Discover and reconstruct the physical and behavioral reality
    from which life was created and evolved.
   4.0 List of Major Steps
   4.1 Introduction Step 1)  Aether Postulate,
          Step 2)  moon collision/capture. Pangaea
          4.1.1 Continental drift Plat tectonics False Note:
   4.2 Timeline of human evolution - The Great Apes
          4.2.1 Great Apes - Overview Step 3)  Garden of Eden.
          4.2.2 Inbreeding avoidance in chimpanzees
          4.2.3 Do gorilla females join males to avoid infanticide?
   4.3 Did drought force early humans to leave Africa and
          populate the world?  
          Step 4) Climate change -  live on a plain rather than forest.
          4.3.1 drought that changed and diversified the eating
                    habits of early humans
         4.3.2 Did drought force early humans to leave Africa?
   4.4 What knowledge came from changing seasons?
          Step 5) Changing seasons. 
          Step 6) Back to humans development.
                        God's first law of genetics
          4.4.1 How do migratory birds find their way ?
                   4.4.1.1 Cock-and-bull stories and amazing facts
                   4.4.1.2 Migration: a challenge!
                   4.4.1.3 How do they find their way?
                   4.4.1.4 teaching birds a new migration route

4.5 Steven Pinker on the myth of non- violence.
      4.5.1 One of God's biological laws: 
                What survives propagates! Mitochondrial DNA
4.6 What was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil?
      4.6.0 Background
      4.6.1 Young women are attracted to the invader!
      4.6.2 Riots show a lack of respect for the invaded culture.
      4.6.3 It is not necessarily the lack of a father.
      4.6.4 The break down of mammalian level innocence.
                Step 7)  Forbidden Fruit (Knowledge of Good and Evil)!
                Step 8) Male/Female Brain Development 
      4.6.5 Male and Female Brains
      4.6.6 Male-Female Brain Differences
4.7 Migration to northern Europe, Asia and North America. 
      Step 9) Migrating into northern Europe, Asia and
                    North America.
      4.7.1 The "hands on learning" of early sailors 
      4.7.2 The need to know what we are talking about!
4.8 The developmental advantage of prehistoric children
      Step 10) Compare mothering of humans and great apes.
      4.8.1 Normal nursing period for great apes.
      4.8.2 Infants have mother's voice recognition at birth.
      4.8.3 The levels of caring in healthy development
      4.8.4 Group reared children avoid marriage in the group.
      4.8.5 American Commune Raised Children.
      4.8.6 The 1966 decree
     
4.8.7 Autism

Prehistoric sailing, mapping and quantifying are common sense foundations of writing and mathematics 
that became corrupted with early civilization.

4 Discover and reconstruct the physical and behavioral reality from which life was created and evolved.

   4.0 List of Major Steps

Step 1) The error of rejection of the Aether Postulate.
Step 2) Discover the moon collision/capture.
Step 3)  Garden of Eden. 
Step 4) Out of the trees and into the plain.
Step 5)  Changing seasons. 
Step 6) Back to humans development.
Step 7) The Forbidden Fruit (The Knowledge of Good and Evil)!
Step 8) Male/Female Brain Development
Step 9)   Migrating into northern Europe, Asia and North America.
Step 10)  Compare mothering of humans and great apes.
Step 11)  Then we will go from the survival genetics implications of the hunter-gatherer history of humans, to 
Step 12)  the mammoth hunting need for large boats,
Step 13)  to ocean sailing and the spread of rock poles  to tell the time of day, and standard pebble weight balances with calibrated drip clocks to tell the time at night to know longitude when sailing. Then to stone circles used to calibrate the yearly cycle to know latitude by overhead star patterns and the time of year, to the spread of megalith monuments that shows the spread of the Indo-European culture that grew out of the mammoth hunting development of large boats and crews. 

4.1 Introduction:

The method of discovering the truths of the origin of written language and mathematics is to:

  Discover and reconstruct the physical and behavioral reality the people were living in. 

After a background of what exist and how it came to be you will be led to put yourself in their situation of solving the problems of daily, seasonally and yearly life cycles. 

Counting aids other than body parts appear in the Upper Paleolithic. The oldest tally sticks date to between 35,000 and 25,000 years ago, in the form of notched bones found in the context of the European Aurignacian to Gravettian and in Africa's Late Stone Age.

The so-called Wolf bone is a prehistoric artefact discovered in 1937 in Czechoslovakia during excavations at Vestonice, Moravia, led by Karl Absolon. Dated to the Aurignacian, approximately 30,000 years ago, the bone is marked with 55 tally marks. The head of an ivory Venus figurine was excavated close to the bone. [ *Graham Flegg, Numbers: their history and meaning, Courier Dover Publications, 2002 ISBN 9780486421650, pp. 41-42.]

Step 1) Discover the error in rejection of the Aether Postulate due to the Michelson–Morley experiment  performed in 1887 using a Michelson interferometer. This erroneous conclusion is an error that has caused great convolution of Physical errors in the Mathematical presentations of the foundation of Theoretical Physics. Matter, Space and the capacity for Motion are not created nor destroyed. Creation is like forming a hat out of Eternal Matter. (See: 2-1-09_cosmology.htm).

Step 2) Discover the moon collision/capture. See: (2-2-4-4_moon-struck.htm) 80 million years ago as the source of the  breakup of Pangaea, killing the Dinosaurs and started Earth's rotation (where before Pangaea had faced the sun building up after billions of years of solar heating and deposition and there was a "ring of life" around the hot spot (2-2-3-5_continent-building-before-breakup.htm). 

The next major event for earth was being hit from behind by the moon.

Moon Approach Earth Moon Hit Earth Near Orbits Impact Breakup Left spinning

Pangaea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
Map of Pangaea with modern continents outlined
Animation showing the movement of the continents throughout the Phanerozoic eon, including the formation and break-up of Pangaea
Pangaea, Pangæa, or Pangea (play /pænˈə/ pan-JEE;[1]) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming about 300 million years ago[2] and beginning to rift around 200 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configurations.[3] The single global ocean which surrounded Pangaea is accordingly named Panthalassa.

The name Pangaea is derived from Ancient Greek, pan (πᾶν) meaning "entire," and Gaia (Γαῖα) meaning "Earth." The name was coined during a 1927 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), first published in 1915, he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent", before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations.[4]

4.1.1 Continental drift

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

This article is about the development of the continental drift hypothesis before 1958. For the contemporary theory, see plate tectonics.

Antonio Snider-Pellegrini's Illustration of the closed and opened Atlantic Ocean (1858).

Plat tectonics Note: Plat tectonics is another false idea taught at Universities. 

Moon strike, the Coriolis effect and Gravity are the cause of breakup and drift toward the equator! 
See 2.2.5.6 Mountain Building.

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other by appearing to drift across the ocean bed.[1] The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently (and more fully) developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. The theory of continental drift was superseded by the theory of plate tectonics, which builds upon and better explains why the continents move. Note: Plat tectonics is another false idea taught at Universities. 

4.2 Timeline of human evolution -

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_evolution

Taxonomic rank Name Common name  
family Hominidae Great apes (Humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) 15,000,000 years ago
subfamily Homininae Humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas 8,000,000 years ago
tribe Hominini Humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos 5,800,000 years ago
subtribe Hominina Bipedal apes (Australopithecus and descendants) 3,000,000 years ago
genus Homo Humans, neanderthals, homo erectus, and their direct ancestors 2,500,000 years ago
species Homo sapiens Humans 500,000 years ago
sub-species Homo sapiens sapiens Modern humans 200,000 years ago

4.2.1 Great Apes - Overview

Common Name: Great apes
Location: Africa and Asia

http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/greatapes/greatapes.html

The great apes belong to the taxonomic family Homindae, which includes chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas and humans. This group includes our closest wild relatives. In fact, all members of this family share possibly more than 97% of their DNA. The great apes have all been documented using tools, and communicating with amazing complexity. The great apes are found primarily in Central Africa with the exception of orangutans, which are native to the islands of Borneo and Sumatra in Asia. All of the great apes face serious threats and are all endangered, some critically endangered. Habitat loss, climate change, infectious disease and illegal hunting for both meat and the live pet trade have combined to push these species to the brink of extinction. If we don?t act soon, we will lose our closest relatives forever.

Hominoidea




humans (genus Homo)



chimpanzees (genus Pan)




gorillas (genus Gorilla)




orangutans (genus Pongo)




gibbons (family Hylobatidae)



apes

Step 3)  Garden of Eden. That was before females had the logical ability to associated male penetration with their child. And, the male discovery that they create the child and it only has one father. 

4.2.2 Inbreeding avoidance in chimpanzees 

Anim. Behav., 1980, 28, 543-552
INBREEDING AVOIDANCE IN CHIMPANZEES
BY ANNE E. PUSEY"?

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford. California Abstract. In a community of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, females? associations with their previous closest male associates (usually maternal siblings) dropped abruptly when they commenced full oestrous cycles, in some eases because the females changed their range within their natal community. Sexual activity was very infrequent between maternal siblings and between mothers and sons. Whereas males remained in their natal community all their lives, most or all females transferred to other communities during adolescence either permanently or temporarily. inter-community transfer by females apparently resulted from attraction to unfamiliar males. ?Thus inbreeding appears to be avoided in this species as a consequence of reduced sexual attraction between individuals who were familiar with each other in immaturity.

4.2.3 Do gorilla females join males to avoid infanticide? A quantitative model

A.H. Harcourt - Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis - Correspondence: A. H. Harcourt, Department of Anthropology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A. (email:ahharcourt@ucdavis.edu).

J. Greenberg - Ecology Graduate Group, University of California, Davis - J. Greenberg is at the Ecology Graduate Group, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.

Received 21 December 2000. Revised 8 March 2001. Accepted 10 April 2001. Available online 12 March 2002.

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347201918354

by AH Harcourt - 2001 - Cited by 43 - Related articles
In two other great apes (chimpanzee Pan, orang-utanPongo ), females are more or less solitary, and infanticide rates are very low (≤5%). With these species' ...


Abstract

Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla, females associate permanently with males. What benefit do the females obtain from the association? Where males are larger than females, as in the gorilla, protection from predation is the long-standing answer. However, protection from infanticidal nonfather males is increasingly suggested as a better hypothesis. Given that a female's alternative strategy is to range alone and mate with many males, a hitherto ignored problem of the anti-infanticide hypothesis is that a female's joining a single male necessarily maximizes the proportion of males in the population who can use the infanticidal strategy. To ask whether lone gorilla females could mate with enough males to decrease the probability of infanticide below that observed in the wild, we use novel modifications of a gas molecule equation to model encounter rates of a lone female with males. The modifications include separation of encounter rates in fertile periods from those in nursing periods and, importantly, a decline function that converts infanticidal males to noninfanticidal, on mating. Parameters include density of males, speed of travel, and duration of fertile and nursing periods. In two other great apes (chimpanzee Pan, orang-utanPongo ), females are more or less solitary, and infanticide rates are very low (≤5%). With these species' values in the model, equivalently low infanticide rates result. Thus, the model appears valid. For the gorilla, the model indicates that under most realistic conditions, solitary females mate with so few males that infanticide rates are more than three times the observed rate of 14% of births. Association with a male thus decreases the probability of infanticide. The anti-infanticide hypothesis for grouping is thus supported. But the antipredation hypothesis is not thereby negated, and remains a powerful hypothesis, given that predators are a danger to the female, as well as her infant.

4.3 Did drought force early humans to leave Africa and populate the world?

In the background we can observe the males of the great apes working together as a team hunting and attacking or defending in conflict with another group. 

This helps us understand our genetic survival background that caused males to have the brain hemisphere specialization between intuition and common sense. While females needed to deal with the here and now males had to plan for the future and work in groups.

Step 4 Out of the trees and into the plain.

4.3.1  There seems to have been a great drought that changed and diversified the eating habits of early humans. Competition for food and starvation is a cause for tribal conflict leading to the development of groups of males working together and developing logical plans for attack or defense.

For two-thirds of its history, Homo sapiens lived exclusively in Africa. Only now are the details of that period becoming clear

Apr 24th 2008 | from the print edition Before the exodus http://www.economist.com/node/11088535

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA is a remarkable thing. Itself the remnant of a strange evolutionary event (the merger of an ancient bacterium with the cell ancestral to all plant and animal life), it also carries the imprint of more recent evolution. In many species, humans included, it passes only from mother to child. No paternal genes get mixed into it. That makes it easy to see when particular genetic mutations happened, and thus to construct a human family tree.

The branches of that tree are now well studied. Humans started in Africa, spread to Asia around 60,000 years ago, thence to Australia 50,000 years ago, Europe 35,000 years ago and America 15,000 years ago. What have not been so well examined, though, are the tree's African roots. The genetic diversity of Africans probably exceeds that of the rest of the world put together. But the way that diversity evolved is unclear.

A study carried out under the auspices of the Genographic Project, based in Washington, DC, and just published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, goes some way towards correcting this oversight. The study's researchers, led by Doron Behar of the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa and Spencer Wells of America's National Geographic Society, have used the mitochondrial DNA of more than 600 living Africans to show how genetic diversity has developed in Africa. In doing so, they have shed light on how modern man spread around his home continent long before he took the first, tentative steps into a bigger, wider world.

By the drought divided

The team paid particular attention to samples taken from the Khoi and San people of southern Africa. These people, known colloquially as bushmen, traditionally make their livings by hunting and gathering. Indeed, their way of life is thought by many anthropologists to resemble quite closely that of pre-agricultural people throughout the world.

Comparing Khoi and San DNA with that of other Africans shows that the first big split in Homo sapiens happened shortly after the species emerged, 200,000 years ago. Most people now alive are on one side of that split. Most bushmen are on the other. The consortium's analysis of which DNA “matrilines” are found where suggests that for much of its history the species was divided into two isolated populations, one in eastern Africa and one in the south of the continent, that were defined by this split. However, few other matrilineal splits from the first 100,000 years of the species's history have survived to the present day.

This suggests the early human population was tiny (so the opportunities for new matrilines to evolve in the first place were limited) and reinforces the idea that Homo sapiens may have come close to extinction (eliminating some matrilines that did previously exist). Indeed, there may, at one point, have been as few as 2,000 people left to carry humanity forward.

This shrinkage coincides with a period of prolonged drought in eastern Africa, and was probably caused by it. The end of the drought, however, was followed by the appearance of many new matrilines that survive to the present day. The researchers estimate that by 60,000-70,000 years ago, the period when the exodus that populated the rest of the world happened, as many as 40 such groups were flourishing in Africa—though that migration involved only two of these groups.

The African matrilines, however, seem to have remained isolated from each other for tens of millennia after the exodus. It was not until 40,000 years ago that they began to re-establish conjugal relations, possibly as a result of the technological revolution of the Late Stone Age, which yielded new and more finely crafted tools. Only the bushmen seem to have missed out on this panmictic party. They were left alone until a few hundred years ago, when their homelands were invaded from the north by other Africans and from the south by Europeans. Panmixis thus came full circle. And that particular party was certainly not a happy one.

from the print edition | Science and technology

4.3.2 Did drought force early humans to leave Africa and populate the world ?

 

7 December 2005

Scientists have identified a major climate crisis that struck Africa about 70,000 years ago and which may have changed the course of human history.

The evidence comes from sediments drilled up from the beds of Lake Malawi and Tanganyika in East Africa, and from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana.

It shows equatorial Africa experienced a prolonged period of drought.

It is possible, scientists say, this was the reason some of the first humans left Africa to populate the globe.

Certainly, those who remained on the continent at that time would have had to be extremely resilient to make it through such hard times.

"This was a profound impact on the landscape," said Christopher Scholz, from Syracuse University, US.

"So it must have had a major impact, not just on humans but on all species in equatorial Africa at this time."

Dr Scholz presented data from the drilling project here at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

The cores reveal that prior to 75,000 years ago, Lake Malawi, which is currently an inland sea some 550km long and 700m deep, was reduced to a couple of pools no more than 10km across and 200m deep.

Worse still was Lake Bosumtwi. Currently a 10km-wide lake that fills an old space impact crater, it lost all of its water. Only a prolonged continent-wide drought could have had this effect. What makes the timing so fascinating is that it ties in with the "Eve hypothesis" of human evolution.

Genetic studies suggest modern human society is descended from a group of around 10,000 individuals who lived in East Africa at the time of this crisis.

Immediately after its end, human populations started to expand rapidly - and many of our ancestors began moving out of Africa and into the Middle East, Asia and Europe.

Scientists are increasingly convinced that tragedies in the deep past have shaped human evolution.

The intriguing thought is that we owe our existence to a small band of survivors who clung on to life during a crisis of epic proportions or who simply decided they had to move to find water.

"We think there may be a connection between this climatic release - that is the rise in lake levels following this major desiccation event - and the order of magnitude increase in early modern humans," Dr Scholz said. "And, also, there may be a connection with the exodus of early modern humans out of Africa and this climatic release.

"There's been recognition that speciation of hominids is controlled by environmental factors - whether that's long-term changes in aridfication in Africa or perhaps the dramatic increase in variability in environmental conditions, such as in precipitation, temperature, and so forth."

Source: BBC


4.4 What knowledge came from changing seasons?

Step 5Changing seasons. 

NOAA Office of Education NOAA Office of Education NOAA Homepage Home >> Climate >> 

You may adapt your wardrobe and activities to the seasons, grabbing a heavy coat and skis in winter or instead, a swimsuit and snorkel in summer. However, ecosystems, plants, and animals cannot adjust their wardrobe quite so easily but they do make changes that help them survive seasonal conditions caused by the annual dance of the sun and Earth.

Changing Seasons Graphic  
Seasonal vegetation changes across North America. Image shows the presence of green leaves absorbing sunlight as interpreted by satellite sensors used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).
Center for Satellite Applications and Research
To replay, please refresh your browser.

Birds migrate from the North Atlantic to the southern tip of South America. Whales and other marine mammals swim thousands of miles across the ocean. Seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature affect soil moisture, evaporation rates, river flows, lake levels, and snow cover. Leaves fall and plants wither as cold and dry seasons approach. These changes in vegetation affect the type and amount of food available for humans and other organisms. Only with the recent advent of rapid transportation are fresh fruits and vegetables available in grocery stores during the winter in cold regions. Animals do not shop at grocery stores, they must find alternate food sources, move to warmer locations, or hibernate.

It may be surprising that all of these changes are the result of the Earth’s tilted axis and our planet’s yearly trip around the sun.

As we go about our everyday activities it is not obvious that the Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees on its axis and that we orbit the sun. Nevertheless, these factors result in changes to the distribution of the sun’s energy across the surface of the Earth causing the seasons.

As the Earth orbits the sun every 365 ¼ days, the axis is always pointing in the same direction into space with the North Pole toward Polaris, the North Star. Around June 21st, the northern hemisphere is angled towards the sun, and receives the most direct radiation and the most energy. This is the start of summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Six months later, in December, the Earth has made half a revolution around the sun. The northern hemisphere is now angled away from the sun and receives less energy than the southern hemisphere; this is the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere, and summer in the southern hemisphere. From north to south the results of the distribution of solar energy can be seen in the changing vegetation (see the accompanying diagram), animal behaviors, and by examining the clothes people wear.

Education Connection

What are some ways that animals adapt to seasonal changes in your region? How does this compare to other areas? How do different groups of people adjust to the seasonal changes in your region? How do the seasons impact the use of energy in your community? Investigating questions such as these may help provide relevance of seasonal changes for students. Inquiry lessons based around these types of phenomena can be used in any grade level and can help educators differentiate instruction.

Adapted from Why Do We have Seasons? and Annual Cycle and Variability

Features

Autumn brings changing colors.

Cool Autumn Weather Reveals Nature's True Hues

September, 2010 (NOAA)
As days get shorter and nights become longer, trees prepare for winter and the next growing season by blocking off flow to and from a leaf's stem... Read More

Changing seasons in Arizona desert

Counting Blossoms Along a Canyon Trail

April 2010 (Photo courtesy of Zack Guido)
By 2003, Bertelsen had amassed a continuous 20-year record of first blooming dates for hundreds of plants that spanned more than 4,000 feet of elevation... Read More

Red Cross uses seasons

Forecasts Improve Humanitarian Decision Making

January 2010 (The International Research Institute)
This was the first time in the history of the Red Cross movement an emergency appeal was issued based on seasonal climate information. In addition, extra volunteers of the Red Cross and Disaster Response Teams were trained and pre-positioned all across the zone... Read More

Step 6) Back to humans development.

In the background we can observe the males of the great apes working together as a team hunting and attacking or defending in conflict with another group. 

The difficult situations gave preference to those big animal hunting men who could use logic to plan future hunting/warfare , communications and change diets tended to survive and develop the brain beyond other great apes. Hunting larger game also required larger groups of males working together and logical planning of the kill and how to get the meat home.

This helps us understand our genetic survival background that caused males to have the brain hemisphere specialization between intuition and common sense. While females needed to deal with the here and now males had to plan for the future and work in groups.

God's first law of genetics is "what propagates is what survived!". 

Around my homes and during my walks, both in the USA and Russia, I enjoy the view of pairs of doves and their cooing. Like many species, doves tend to mate for life because that is what tends to survive for them.

it seems that difficult situations gave preference to those who could use logic, communications and change diets tended to survive and develop the brain beyond other great apes.

Again, evidence indicates there was a great drought that changed and diversified the eating habits of early humans. Competition for food and starvation seems the cause of tribal conflict leading to the development of groups of males working together and developing logical plans for attack or defense.

4.4.1 How do migratory birds find their way?  http://www.educapoles.org/news/news_detail/how_do_migratory_birds_find_their_way/

Geese flying
Geese flying

© Christian Moullec

Biologists on board of the "Alcyon", the boat that undertook an expedition "from the Mediterranean Sea to the Spitzberg", take turns to identify and count all the birds they meet. Among them, many are migratory birds.

It is springtime, that's why! Migratory birds are coming back to cooler areas to breed and build their nest. These birds often make incredible journeys and come back, year after year, to the same place.

4.4.1.1 Cock-and-bull stories and amazing facts

More than 2000 years ago, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) had already discovered that some birds, like the cranes, were migrating in autumn. On the other hand, for birds like the swallows, he thought that they fell in a lethargic state and hid themselves in cavities or holes during the whole winter. In a word, he thought that swallows, storks, blackbirds and larks hibernated!

Many other crazy hypotheses have been made on the migration of birds: in 1703, a book suggested that, as it was impossible for birds to cross oceans, they spent the winter on the moon! Another well-known scientist, Carl von Linné (1907-1977), thought that swallows were spending the winter in the mud at the bottom of ponds...

Today we know that birds fly in a regular, recurrent and seasonal movement from their wintering ranges to breeding areas: nearly 40 % of the bird species living in Europe and Asia are migratory birds, which means that, in autumn, 3 to 4 thousand million birds are leaving Eurasia for warmer places, while other birds arrive from cooler countries. We now have a lot of information about these birds and their habits. Even though, migratory birds didn't loose their magic: the more we learn about them through scientific studies and the more we are astonished by their incredible feats and their fantastic capacities.

Each bird specie has its own route, with its own departure and arrival dates, its own way to travel (making many stops or flying as far and quickly as possible with nearly no stops) and its own habits (flying alone or with a group).

Bar-headed Geese fly over the Himalaya twice a year and go as high as 9000 meter to get over this obstacle!

The Arctic Tern, a bird weighing about 100 grams, makes each year the round trip between the Arctic and the Antarctic (about 20 000 kilometres) in order to never experience wintertime!

Now what about the Sedge Warbler, which can fly 4000 kilometres without any stopover? This bird weighs 23 grams when he begins the journey and only 9 grams when he arrives!

Other small migratory birds can fly during 75 hours straight at 1000 meters high to cross the Mediterranean Sea or the Sahara!

One of them made a short stopover on "Alcyon", while it was crossing the Mediterranean Sea:

22nd of March 2005
(...) At the back of the boat, a small winged dot on the sea is approaching Alcyon. It fights against the wind, it goes back a few meters, and then catches up with the boat and lands on the guardrail, catching its breath, just next to the tiller. No doubt: it is a Northern Chiffchaff, migrating, going back north to central Europe to breed. Quite adventurous, it hops around the deck, perches on the shrouds and finally inspects the cabin! After a few minutes, it leaves again, heading North. A Northern Chiffchaff. There is one nesting in my garden. I recognise his metallic "chiff-chaff" song. Next time that I will see it sing, perched at the top a bush, I will think of the open sea, of the storms that he had to endure and of this long journey. And also of the Berber that he probably crossed in the Moroccan oasis, and of the fishermens' boats that he landed onto for short stopovers (...).

4.4.1.2 Migration: a challenge!

Many would love to do just like migratory birds: live an eternal summer. But migration is not much fun: it is a real challenge.

Birds migrate mainly to search for food. But how do they know it's time to go?

For sure, it's not the lack of food that pushes them to leave, because they leave long before the food comes to miss. In fact, it seems that it's the length of the daytime and the temperature that influence the birds' hormones. That's how, in springtime, the birds "feel" it's time to leave. They then get ready for the migration: they stock "fuel" in order to have enough energy through the whole journey. In fact, during two weeks, they are going to eat a lot more than usual and, thanks to the hormone changes, their body is going to stock these reserves very quickly, gaining mainly grease. For example, the small Sedge Warbler, which we mentioned earlier, weighs normally 10 to 12 grams. Just before leaving for its migratory journey, it weighs twice more!

Many dangers threaten the birds during the journey: storms, predators, disappearance of their usual stopover places where they are used to find rest and food, etc. Only 20 to 30% of the young passerines survive to their first migratory journey. Among the adults, only half of them will come back the following year.

4.4.1.3 How do they find their way?

This question still interests many scientists. It has been showed that birds use several orientation "tools".

They can use the sun, for example, which means that they permanently "know" what time it is, in order to know the right direction on the basis of the sun's position. They are also sensible to the ultraviolet rays which penetrate the clouds but are invisible for human beings. Even the nocturnal birds use the position of the sun at sunset to know their position.

Nocturnal birds also use the stars. This has been proved by letting birds fly in a planetarium and changing the stars' position.

Another tool is the earth's magnetic field (earth's north and south magnetic poles). Some birds, like pigeons, have a small zone in their brain made of magnetite (magnetic mineral), just like a small compass. But other scientists think it's rather in their eyes that some birds have a system which indicates them where the magnetic north is...

Of course, birds also use their knowledge of the landscape: they follow rivers, valleys or roads, or locate themselves with particular mountain peaks.

Other tracks are still to be explored. For example it seems that some birds could find their way by following their sense of smell...

4.4.1.4 An experiment to save the Lesser White-fronted Geese: teaching birds a new migration route

The birds making the migration journey on their own, know their way by " instinct ". Others, flying in groups, have to learn the way with their parents during the first journey. That is the case of geese, cranes and swans.

This fact, along with a few others which seemed to have no link whatsoever, allowed Christian Moullec, a French meteorologist, ornithologist and pilot to launch an incredible project: teaching geese a new migration route.

In 1999, Christian Moullec "raises" thirty eggs of Lesser White-fronted Geese, hoping to teach them to live in new places, similar to their usual environments: the aim was to set their breeding area in a Swedish Wildlife Sanctuary and their wintering ranges in a German Wildlife Sanctury, away from the poachers. For the journey, Christian Moullec was forced to use a two-places ULM because the geese would not follow it if his wife, who had been more present when they were learning to fly, wasn't on board!

In autumn, the couple and the geese flew 1800 kilometres (900 above the Baltic Sea) to the German Wildlife Sanctuary in the Rhine valley. The experiment succeeded: in springtime the birds came back on their own to the Swedish Wildlife Sanctuary.

Christian Moullec just launched the second part of the project: with the help of german pilots, he is going to begin the same experiment once again, but this time with a lot more geese, to try to save this endangered specie.

The International Polar Foundation:  If you like this website, we have three more for you to check out: SciencePoles, ExploraPoles

Then being forced by climate change to live on a plain rather than in the forest, hunting larger game also required larger groups of males working together and logical planning of the kill and how to get the meat home.

4.5 Steven Pinker on the myth of non- violence.


Society - Debunking The Noble Savage Myth Taught By Sophists

Linguist Steven Pinker questions the very nature of our thoughts -- the way we use words, how we learn, and how we relate to others. In his best-selling books, he has brought sophisticated language analysis to bear on topics of wide general interest.
Full bio and more links

Steven Pinker charts the decline of violence from Biblical times to the present, and argues that, though it may seem illogical and even obscene, given Iraq and Darfur, we are living in the most peaceful time in our species' existence.

The myth of the noble savage was academically exposed in a TED lecture by Steven Pinker. Stevens lecture can be viewed online at: http://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_on_the_myth_of_violence.html

A saved copy can be viewed at: society-debunking-noble-savage-pinker.flv 
or society-debunking-noble-savage-pinker.wmv

4.5.1 One of God's biological laws: What survives propagates!

Sometimes the time and
chance developments like
the Common Cuckoo seems
evil to me.

But, it is just God's law of
genetics violating our sense
of good and evil

Brood parasitism is a form
of parasitism.


A Common Cuckoo being
raised by a Reed Warbler.

In God we live and move and have our being. We are the awareness of good and evil in God, perhaps we would do better by destroying the invader eggs so that the genetic trait would die out? 

Mitochondrial DNA is thought to be the genetic remains of an invading virus.

Mitochondria.jpgA lot of people think of viruses and bacteria in our bodies as nothing more than pests. It’s certainly true that a lot of them do an excellent job of making us ill. But some viruses and bacteria merged with our ancestors over the course of billions of years, and if you were to have them removed from your body today, you’d die faster than if you’d gotten a massive dose of Ebola.

Mitochondrial DNA http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2005/09/15/part-human-part-virus/

What is mitochondrial DNA?

 http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/mtdna

Previous page Next page Previous page Next page

Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA.

Mitochondria (illustration) are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).

Mitochondria produce energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This process uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy source. A set of enzyme complexes, designated as complexes I-V, carry out oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria.

In addition to energy production, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular activities. For example, mitochondria help regulate the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). They are also necessary for the production of substances such as cholesterol and heme (a component of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood).

Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins.


In any case let us look at what formed our genetic makeup during the hunter gather stage of human development.

4.6  What was the fruit of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil (forbidden fruit).

4.6.0 Background for insight.

In the order of a million years the genetically healthiest tribes were those that attacked other tribes killing the men and taking the women by rape and violence. Females had a history of being captured and sexually violated. Those that embraced the invader tended to survive and hence propagate more than those that resisted. This has left its genetic marks on females. 

4.6.1 Young women are attracted to the invader! 

While teaching Math and Physics in a suburban high school, we had a large influx of inner city blacks.  This was part of the ongoing response to the inner-city riots of the sixties and seventies.  They build subsidized apartments to integrate the blacks into the suburbs. At a staff meeting the assistant principal said that the black girls in our school had a problem and we needed to come up with ways to help.

The problem was that black boys were attracted to white girls and white girls were attracted to black boys but white boys were not attracted to black girls. So when we had a school dance no boys invited the black girls. And when the black girls came to the dance on their own,  nobody invited them to dance so they had to dance among them selves. In Armenia growing up and at the university Olga experienced the same with girls coming from Russia, they were attracted to the darker Armenian boys and were often abused. 

From the above one might think that skin color was the cause but I have discovered it is not. Ask any soldier of an invading army and he will tell you that the young women seek them out.  Young women are attracted to the invader! 

4.6.2 Inner city riots are a lack of respect for the culture.

The problem of the inner city blacks was the cultural break down of the home and fatherhood. Cities are no place to raise children anyway but for the black women (and any women without a husband to support them) there was free apartment food and money according to how many children a women had.

Now we have a problem in Kenmore, New York and suburbs throughout the country. 

Example: Last month I went to the Kenmore Library. Outside were a mixed group of boys and girls. White girls in short-shorts and flimsy shirts laying on the approach partition like being ready to be mounted. A mix of white and black boys with long shorts low enough to show the crack in their rear and hats on sideways, grabbing there crotches and using the F word and more.

I had forgotten my external hard drive and had to go back home. I was disgusted at the language but on my return a Policeman was forcing them to leave the property. I thanked the Policeman and told him how crude they were behaving and how bad it is getting on the streets. He said, "I know and I have 11 more years of this before I can retire!"

4.6.3 It is not necessarily the lack of a father. It is city childrearing in large numbers and lack of respect for the culture. We had another example in France yesterday (see 2012-08-14 France Muslims Rioting).  This was not as bad as October 2005 (see 2005-10-27 Muslims Riot In France). Note: We were in Zheleznovodsk. Russia at the time in 2005 and two police cars were burned there in sympathy with the Muslims in France!

Today 2012-08-14 France Muslims Rioting in France. Poverty is being used to dismiss even the labeling of Muslim youths rioting and shooting at police (Seventeen police officers were injured in violent clashes) and no arrests were made even after burning schools! 

The Muslims have a birthing policy. As the retired Turkish General said, "We do not need to make war to take Europe. We will ride the democratic bus!"

Demographics of the Gaza Strip: 0-14 years: 44.7%. The population has gone from 100,272[85] in 1982 to 1,710,257 (July 2011 est.). That is 17 times (%1700) greater in less than 30 years while they are being housed and fed by the UN (Most funds coming from the USA)

The Muslims in France have fathers. So the problem is childrearing in the city and lack of respect for the culture. Yes it is exacerbated by poverty but the poverty is caused by childrearing in the city and lack of respect for the culture!

4.6.4 The break down of mammalian level innocence.

Step 7)  The Forbidden Fruit (The Knowledge of Good and Evil)!

The genetic and gender causes of the break down of mammalian level innocence was the logical and symbolic knowledge of language of labels and logical association of cause and effect by seemingly disassociated events. 

This led females to a love/hate relationship with males. With the development of connecting the child with the male often by violent abduction and rape, the feeling toward the male was projected unto the infant and the sense of victimization.

This how ever is not the main cause of infanticide and abortion today. Today the the weakening of the mammalian nursing bond is the generational magnification of the broken mother infant mammalian relationship and lack of meaningful family life.

Infanticide, suicide and abortion often have the same root cause as autism and their statistics tend to go hand in hand.

Step 8) Male/Female Brain Development

This is a quick overview the foundation is the result of investigation into brain development presented in the main body. Quickly for background, we have the a number of separate brain components.


Second as we grow through brain growth stages we change the area of the brain responding. For example the crawling child brain growth stage is by passed when we learn to walk and move into the toddler brain growth stage.

We may be able to activate some of the crawling feelings and responses by getting down and crawling. The point is that the different life stages have a life and needs of their own. In the fetal life stage we experienced the rocking back and forth while our mother walked. That is where the joy of rocking and dancing comes from. The joy of music comes from the fetal life stage hearing the mother's heart beat. Humans females (as with other great ape females) had a normal breast feeding period of 4 to 6 year. During that time they could have intercourse without pregnancy. They did not associate male impregnation with a father of a child. 

Eve represent females in general. Adam represented males in general. Eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil was recognizing that only one man was the father of any one child. This knowledge led to the logical concept of a particular and unchanging father-child association. 

This led to the sin of multiple partners for women because it deprived the child (and father) of certainty in father-child relationship and responsibility.

4.6.5 Male and Female Brain  Note:

The Cerebrum is located in the anterior (front) portion of the forebrain. It is divided into two hemispheres that are connected by the corpus callosum (The corpus callosum is a thick band of fibers located between the cerebral hemispheres and connects the 2 hemispheres together) Determines intelligence, personality, interpretation of sensory impulses and motor function . It also helps with planning and organization as well as touch sensation.

Women's right and left hemispheres of the Cerebrum tend to be duplicates. Both sides performing verbal and non verbal tasks. Men's hemispheres are more specialized and causes them greater loss of function when they have a stroke on one side of the brain (like the loss of speech as compared to women).

Intuition (pattern intellect - right hemisphere of the male cerebrum)   and common sense (logical intellect - left hemisphere of the male cerebrum) reality programmed into childhood brain development (synaptic network growth while nerve growth factor is present) by discovery in reality (objective learning) and the spoken or written Indoctrination from authority figures (subjective learning).

4.6.6 Male-Female Brain Differences

Male-Female Brain Differences

From http://www.doctorhugo.org/brain4.html

What kind of brain do you have? There really are big differences between the male and female brain, says Simon Baron-Cohen, director of the Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University. In his new book, the Essential Difference: Men, Women and the Extreme Male Brain (published by Penguin) Baron-Cohen shows that, indisputably, on average male and female minds are of a slightly different character. Men tend to be better at analysing systems (better systemisers), while women tend to be better at reading the emotions of other people (better empathisers). Baron-Cohen shows that this distinction arises from biology, not culture.

Cell numbers: men have 4% more brain cells than women, and about 100 grams more of brain tissue. Many women have asked me why men need more brain tissue in order to get the same things done.

Cellular connections: even though a man seems to have more brain cells, it is reported that women have more dendritic connections between brain cells.

Corpus collosum size: it is reported that a woman's brain has a larger corpus collusum, which means women can transfer data between the right and left hemisphere faster than men. Men tend to be more left brained, while women have greater access to both sides.

Language: for men, language is most often just in the dominant hemisphere (usually the left side), but a larger number of women seem to be able to use both sides for language. This gives them a distinct advantage. If a woman has a stroke in the left front side of the brain, she may still retain some language from the right front side. Men who have the same left sided damage are less likely to recover as fully.


Limbic size: bonding/nesting instincts - current research has demonstrated that females, on average, have a larger deep limbic system than males. This gives females several advantages and disadvantages. Due to the larger deep limbic brain women are more in touch with their feelings, they are generally better able to express their feelings than men. They have an increased ability to bond and be connected to others (which is why women are the primary caretakers for children - there is no society on earth where men are primary caretakers for children). Females have a more acute sense of smell, which is likely to have developed from an evolutionary need for the mother to recognize her young. Having a larger deep limbic system leaves a female somewhat more susceptible to depression, especially at times of significant hormonal changes such as the onset of puberty, before menses, after the birth of a child and at menopause. Women attempt suicide three times more than men. Yet, men kill themselves three times more than women, in part, because they use more violent means of killing themselves (women tend to use overdoses with pills while men tend to either shoot or hang themselves) and men are generally less connected to others than are women. Disconnection from others increases the risk of completed suicides.

4.7 Migration to northern Europe, Asia and North America.  

Step 9) Then migrating into northern Europe, Asia and North America hunting the Wooly Mammoth. Put yourself in the human situation of solving the problems of the era before the epoch of Woolly Mammoth extinction.


Vostok Petit data

There is evidence of prehistoric rafting and small crew boating along populated water fronts in the hunter-gatherer era of development. The evidence shows that shore sailing was one of the driving forces for development of class structure in the evolution of the shore village to city states.

But it was the hunting and hauling of the Woolly Mammoths that gave the need for repeated and sustained use of large crews and boats to sail repeated routes at repeated times of year.

Mammoth Facts:

With the need for 300 lbs. of vegetation each day it is clear they would have been near water both to drink and for the growth of the vegetation. From the Mammoth bone homes it is clear that as the mammoths were becoming extinct they had to sail farther and farther. This sailing gave the opportunity and experience to discover the operational astronomical skills to know location and time of year by the stars. Angles and star pattern markings appear on stones and in cave drawings at this time and later.


Stonehenge in Northern Michigan - traverse city. mp4

4.7.1 The "hands on learning" of early sailors (Book learning is no substitute).

The development of the knowledge of physical reality and then its symbolic representation qualitatively in language and quantitatively in symbols is a no-brainer if you can put away your indoctrinations and learn from experiencing physical and behavioral reality.

In this presentation I will help you discover the history of the human developments and insights in to nature that motivated the need to develop mathematics as a quantifying language in the description of reality (like astronomy).

I will help you discover the corruption of the knowledge of truth and the cause of  manipulative corruption of the description (like astrology and planet, sun or moon worship). 

Brain Development Note:  In critical early brain growth stages when nerve growth factor was present the logical brain was programmed to record beliefs. Our beliefs about nature can come from our experience in reality or from the indoctrination by trusted authority figures, authoritarian books and "education".

There is so much misunderstanding and false explanations in the nature of physical and behavioral reality (often taught and memorized as fact in schools and Universities). Use your common sense discover geophysical history for yourself (if you had freedom to develop some common sense from your own experience with nature in early childhood development rather than being the victim of book learning and indoctrination).

Help your children to think and discover things like leverage by playing on a teeter-totter and explore the way to balance different weights by different lengths. While playing with the hose help them to discover that swinging water around in a bucket, fast enough, the water stays in the bucket even when upside down. That is discovering that the force out is greater than the force of gravity. Then play with a merry-go-round and help them discover that an object released in motion does not fly opposite to the force that was restraining it but rather continues in the direction it was moving.

"A body in motion tends to stay in motion along a straight line unless acted on by a force." 

Of course the marry-go-round holds surprises that no child should miss. Like "What direction will you fly if you fall off a marry-go-round?


4.7.2 The need to know what we are talking about!

It is a simple truth that physically stressful times tend to remove the physically weak. But what about behaviorally stressful times?

This is where modern society gets confused. Our words are not operationally defined so two people can hear or say the same words but in their mind the mean two different things so the communications are corrupted and lead to misunderstandings.

I can tell you from my 23 year experience as a teacher of Physics and Mathematics, Senior Building Representative for the 110 teachers of my High School and acting Grievance Chairman for my district's 300+ teachers; that most teachers choose the profession because they care about children unselfishly. The reality is their main reality is the responsibility for the control of from 12 to 40 children in a classroom. Then come the demands of the "Support Administration" that the teachers have no right to evaluate (see Student evaluation of faculty). 

Good examples that need cleared up with clear operational definitions are "culture", "child care", "love", "spirit",  "God", "Creation", "heart", Aether, Logos, Cosmos, Chaos and "soul". 

We will discover that out of the sailing experience came the operational definition of the time of day, time of year, horizontal, vertical, angle measure from vertical, measure of distance and on. As the operational use of location in time and space led to the development of symbolic representation of this knowledge and the written representation that is the foundation of written mathematics.

Remember: Mathematics is a description of a thing or events among things. Whether mathematics describes things or events that are real or imagined is a different thing. 

There is no substitute for early till late childhood learning by hands on experience to have common sense (logical brain hemisphere in males) and intuitive (pattern brain hemisphere in males) that leads to engineers and experimental physicist that can tell a mathematician or theoretical physicist that they have made a mistake because their conclusion violates reality or that their theory is fundamentally wrong for the same reason. 

In the same vain people like Euler (1700's) could state mathematical truths that the proofs are still being discovered in my day. Leonhard Paul Euler (15 April 1707 - 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany

"No one was so prolific or could so cleverly handle mathematics; no one could muster and utilize the resources of algebra, geometry, and analysis to produce so many admirable results. Euler was superbly inventive in methodology and a skilled technician. One finds his name in all branches of mathematics: there are formulas of Euler, polynomials of Euler, Euler constants, Eulerian integrals, Euler lines, and Euler circles [Gajda Z., 1991, On stability of additive mappings, Internat. J. Math. Sci. 14, 431-434.]. 

One might suspect that such a volume of activity could be carried on only at the expense of all other interests. But Euler married and fathered thirteen children. One of his sons, named Jean Albert Euler, was born on November 16, 1734. This man was a good applied mathematician. Always attentive to his family and its welfare Leonhard Euler instructed his children and his grandchildren, constructed scientific games for them, and spent evenings reading the Holy Bible to them. He also loved to express himself on matters of philosophy. On September 18, 1783, after having discussed the topics of the day, "He ceased to calculate and to live". [http://users.uoa.gr/~jrassias/files/euler_1st_iss_vol07.pdf]

In later chapters I will show the insights into the development of human nature that led to the cultures that developed early mathematics and the cause of the cultures that corrupted early mathematics and astronomy into planet and moon worship, numerology, fortune telling and astrology as well as the corrupt use of theory and abstraction in the University texts, courses and teaching today.

4.8 The developmental advantage of prehistoric children

4.8.1 Normal nursing period for great apes.

Step 10) Compare mothering of humans and great apes.

Kathy's Comentaries

A Natural Age of Weaning

by Katherine Dettwyler, PhD


Department of Anthropology,
Texas A and M University
****

My research has looked at the various "life-history" variables (such as length of gestation, birth weight, growth rate, age at sexual maturity, age at eruption of teeth, life span, etc.) in non-human primates and then looked at how these variables correlate with age at weaning in these animals. These are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom, especially gorillas and chimpanzees, who share more than 98% of their genes with humans. I came up with a number of predictions for when humans would "naturally" wean their children if they didn't have a lot of cultural rules about it. This interest stemmed from a reading of the cross-cultural literature on age at weaning, which shows that cultures have very different beliefs about when children should be weaned, from very early in the U.S. to very late in some places. One often hears that the worldwide average age of weaning is 4.2 years, but this figure is neither accurate nor meaningful. A survey of 64 "traditional" studies done prior to the 1940s showed a median duration of breastfeeding of about 2.8 years, but with some societies breastfeeding for much shorter, and some for much longer. It is meaningless, statistically, to speak of an average age of weaning worldwide, as so many children never nurse at all, or their mothers give up in the first few days, or at six weeks when they go back to work. It is true that there are still many societies in the world where children are routinely breastfed until the age of four or five years or older, and even in the United States, some children are nursed for this long and longer. In societies where children are allowed to nurse "as long as they want" they usually self-wean, with no arguments or emotional trauma, between 3 and 4 years of age. This interest also stemmed from the realization that other animals have "natural" ages of weaning, around 8 weeks for dogs, 8-12 months for horses, etc. Presumably these animals don't have cultural beliefs about when it would be appropriate.

Some of the results are as follows:

1. In a group of 21 species of non-human primates (monkeys and apes) studied by Holly Smith, she found that the offspring were weaned at the same time they were getting their first permanent molars. In humans, that would be: 5.5-6.0 years.

The mammalian level child care for the great apes was corrupted in human evolution. Forced impregnation is common among mammals but that is not significantly associated with the infant in the mother's brain until human evolution. The ability of women to respect the needs of their children for full time motherhood may in part be genetic do to a million years the taking of women by violence and rape. But, by far the cause is the lack of infant females having a healthy maternal nursing bond. If you take a female puppy away from its mother to young, when it has puppies it is a poor care giver.

We now know that the root cause of the downfall of civilizations is that affluent women want some one else to care for their babies, hence break the maternal nursing bond and a breakdown in the close family life (infants have mother's voice recognition at birth).

4.8.2 Infants have mother's voice recognition at birth.

Is it true that babies can recognize their mother's voice at birth?

Amazingly, babies can recognize their mother's voice even before birth.

Researchers have long known that newborns recognize – and prefer – their mom's voice. And any new mother can tell you that the sound of her voice is a delight to her new baby. Babies also seem soothed by sounds that mimic those they heard in the womb, like whirring fans and washing machines.

For a study published in the Journal of Psychological Science in 2003, Canadian and Chinese researchers took this voice recognition idea one step further.

They recorded pregnant women reading a poem out loud, and then played the recordings to the babies in utero. The heart rate of babies who heard their mom's voice speeded up, while the heart rate of those who heard the tapes of another mom's voice slowed down, showing that the babies did distinguish between the two.

The researchers theorized that the slower heart rates occurred when the babies were trying to "figure out" what they were hearing, and the faster heart rates corresponded to excitement at hearing their mother's voice.

Experts believe that by picking up the cadence of their mother's voice, babies are beginning to learn about language – and their mom – even before birth.

Member Comments

I remember when my son was born, they put him in his little hospital bassinet by me and I called his name and talked to him. He turned his head and looked at me right away. This was like just a couple of minutes after birth! Then they did his hearing test and told me his hearing was perfect. I was like, of course it's perfect! I already knew that! :)

posted 3/09/2010 by a BabyCenter Member

Just after my little boy was born (just a few months ago), the nurse brought him to me all swaddled up and put him on my chest. I looked into his sweet little eyes and said "Hi". He responded with an "Ahh"! My husband was a few feet away and I asked him if he heard him and he did. Then, I looked at our son again and said "Hi" and he vocalized again! "Ahh"!! He did this for no one else! In fact, it seems that everyone I've told this to doesn't really believe that it happened that way, but it did. And it was the most precious moment of my life!!!!!

posted 3/23/2010 by a BabyCenter Member

22 out of 25 found this comment helpful

My first two daughters did not seem moved by the sound of my voice, but my third ... I had a c/s and they tugged her out and she had a little cry, they bundled her up and brought her around for me to see ... she was still crying when I first saw her ... the sight of that perfect little face sent me soaring! I said softly "Why, hello!" and she got instantly quiet and stared and stared at me ... it was a moment I will not ever forget! Really, truly, one of those special flickers in time that change everything!

posted 4/23/2011 by a BabyCenter Member

 

15 out of 15 found this comment helpful

I am 27 weeks pregnant, and already my baby responds to my fiancee more than anyone else (even me). If he starts talking, she'll start moving around, and she'll kick if he puts his hand on my belly. I have offered my belly for my mom and sister to feel, and she refuses to budge. She's well on her way to being a little daddy's girl!!

posted 8/27/2010 by a BabyCenter Member

12 out of 14 found this comment helpful

I was holding my baby girl the day she was born and my husband started talking to her, she looked around until she found him and her whole face lit up. She knew him and his voice! She is one year old now and still adores her daddy.

posted 3/24/2010 by a BabyCenter Member

 

9 out of 9 found this comment helpful

I had to have a c-section and was sepirated from our little guy for about an hour after he was born. When they wheeled me into the room, daddy and baby were sitting in the chair, i said something (no clue what anymore), but the baby immediately started looking all around for mom. I was amazed.

posted 3/10/2010 by a BabyCenter Member

9 out of 10 found this comment helpful

my daughter knew both mine and her daddy's voices when she was born. we both sat and talked to her all night and when she did have her eyes open she took it all in. she's been a daddy's girl since the womb so i knew she would know that voice

posted 2/15/2011 by a BabyCenter Member

4 out of 4 found this comment helpful

When I had my son, the doctor came in to check on him once a day and every time he would start crying. When they were done they would hand him to me and I would gently say his name and he would immediately stop crying and ooooh at me. It was like him saying I know where I am and I know I am safe. He's still a mommy's boy to this day.

posted 2/16/2011 by a BabyCenter Member

5 out of 7 found this comment helpful

i remember when my twins where born the nurse first handed me my babys i said so u where the two little people in there messing with me and they both startin cooing and movin around tryin to look me in my face .i couldnt believe they knew who i was. one of my best days

posted 1/01/2011 by a BabyCenter Member

5 out of 7 found this comment helpful

I had an emergency C-Section, and when they took him to get cleaned up, he was screaming. My husband went to him and started talking, and he calmed down instantly. The only thing that would keep him from crying in those traumatic first minutes was his father's voice. So I think it's not limited to moms.

posted 5/04/2012 by kaitykinetic

A puppy taken away from its mother to soon does not know how to be a mother. The same is true for baby girls so even with a mother in the home she may not be able to provide the mammalian level nursing bond that is necessary for a healthy foundation for the offspring to rise through the levels of caring to be able to be a physically and behaviorally healthy mother.

4.8.3 The levels of caring in healthy development are:

7.2.13.0 Introduction
7.2.13.1 Self (Narcissistic)
7.2.13.2 Like Self (Homoerotic)
7.2.13.3 Not Like Self (Hetroerotic)
7.2.13.4 Home and Child (Altruistic)
7.2.13.5 Community - Parks and Schools (Guardian)
7.2.13.6 Society - Concern for Future Generations
7.2.13.7 State - World of Work and War (Statesman)
7.2.13.8 Eternity - Life's Purpose (Ultimate Concern)
7.2.13.9 Elderly Decline

 

4.8.4 Group reared children avoid marriage in the group. Similar results of not mating were found for group reared for children in Israeli kibbutzim. In "The Children of the Dream"  A very interesting analysis published in 1969 by child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim summarizing what he learned about the child-rearing practices of an Israeli kibbutz. 

4.8.5 American Commune Raised Children. The studies of American Hippie Communes in the 1960's - 1980's discovered that "Everybody's baby is nobodies baby!" 

In 1939 autism was about 1 in 15,000 to 17,000 and that mainly in orphanages, hospitals and children raised by hirelings.  In 2011 American autism raised to 1 in 88! (1 in 54 for boys!) Note, boys are more active because of the male hormone Testosterone and this may cause them to test the mammalian maternal nursing bond more often. 

The fact is that children raised in daycare lack some mammalian level interaction to provide the needed maternal nursing bond. The brain development in these areas (when nerve growth factor is present) is in the first two years. From birth the infant recognizes the mother's voice and it comforts the child (reduces stress). The same words or song by a different women causes an different response!  

But women's rejection of child care is so great that Hillary Clinton gathered many votes. It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us is a book published in 1996 by First Lady of the United States Hillary Rodham Clinton. In it, Clinton presents her vision for the children of America. She focuses on the impact individuals and groups outside the family have, for better or worse, on a child's well-being, and advocates a society which meets all of a child's needs.

Failure of a mother to care for the health of her fetus and provide 2 to 5 years of a maternal nursing bond is a "crime against humanity". The child needs a father who will provide care, and security with a home and food for the mother to be a mother and homemaker for the children and their father. 

To prevent the crime of deprivation of the child's needs for physical and social life and health, women who are unable or unwilling to provide these need barred by law from becoming pregnant! And if they violate the law they need jailed and the infant immediately given to a waiting physically (accept that the inability to have children) and behaviorally healthy set of adopting parents. Note that the healthier child rearing home has siblings.

4.8.6 The 1966 decree

Then again the terrible autism rate in Ceauşescu's Romanian nurseries. He wanted more population and ruled that birth control and abortion were illegal, that the state could raise the unwanted child

In 1966, the Ceauşescu regime, in an attempt to boost the country's population, made abortion illegal, and introduced other policies to reverse the very low birth rate and fertility rate. Mothers of at least five children would be entitled to significant benefits, while mothers of at least ten children were declared heroine mothers by the Romanian state. Few women ever sought this status; instead, the average Romanian family during the time had two to three children (see Demographics of Romania).[10] Furthermore, a considerable number of women either died or were maimed during clandestine abortions.[11]

The government also targeted rising divorce rates and made divorce much more difficult - it was decreed that a marriage could be dissolved only in exceptional cases. By the late 1960s, the population began to swell. In turn, a new problem was created by child abandonment, which swelled the orphanage population (see Cighid). Transfusions of untested blood led to Romania accounting for many of Europe's paediatric HIV/AIDS cases at the turn of the 21st century despite having a population that only makes up around 3% of Europe.[12][13]

4.8.7 Autism

When I was born in1939 (before mothers left the home for the work place) the autism rate was about 1 in 15,000 or less. Now in the Spring of 2012 it is more than 1 in 88 (1 in 54 for boys) and growing! 

Press Release

CDC estimates 1 in 88 children in United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder

CDC data help communities better serve these children

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 88 children in the United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a new study released today that looked at data from 14 communities. Autism spectrum disorders are almost five times more common among boys than girls – with 1 in 54 boys identified.

The cause is the generational degrading of the mammalian level nursing bond and home making ability! But the political clout of the women's liberation movement combined with the Gay and Lesbian liberation movement makes it politically, professionally and Academically suicide to recognize the Truth!

 

4.9 Paternal Care

Home

 

Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": Absolute Difference
Authors:  Peter Gray

Paternal care refers to the time and resources given by a biological father to his offspring. The presence of paternal care varies across human cultures. However, most societies exhibit some degree of paternal care. In some cultures, fathers are only responsible for male children after they reach a certain age, when skills need to be passed on - while in others, fathers may play important roles from children's early ages onward. Paternal care is nearly absent in great apes.

Background Information:

Paternal care refers to the time and resources given by a biological father to his offspring. Paternal care is a broader category of behavior than related concepts such as paternal investment, with the latter referring to investment by a male in biological offspring at some reproductive fitness cost to himself and reproductive fitness benefit to his offspring.
There are various types of paternal care. In a classic typology of primate paternal care, Kleiman and Malcolm (1981) divided paternal care into direct and indirect forms. Direct care includes forms such as holding and carrying offspring. Indirect care includes forms such as defense, whether against predators or threats from members of the same species, and food provisioning.

How do patterns of human paternal care compare with those among Great Apes? Viewed broadly, the magnitude of human paternal care is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and one that appears to have been derived during the past couple of million years of hominin evolution (Gray and Anderson 2010; Hewlett 1991; Lancaster and Lancaster 1983). Characterizing more specific forms of paternal care-types of direct care as well as indirect care-these features may have been derived at different time points during recent hominin evolution. We'll consider the evolutionary origins and Great Ape comparisons for features of a) indirect care such as food provisioning and protection, b) direct care such as holding and time spent in proximity to offspring, and c) roles of fathers in offspring social and moral development. This last category does not easily fit the distinction between direct and indirect care applying to comparative patterns of paternal care but is of notable importance too.

The Human Difference:

Anthropologists and other evolutionary biologists have long suggested that the evolutionary origins to human pair bonds and paternal care entailed some version of a 'man the hunter' hypothesis (Lovejoy 1981; Lancaster and Lancaster 1983). The idea is that during hominin evolution a sexual division of labor, in which men and women performed mostly complementary economic and reproductive tasks, emerged, with males specializing as hunters and women as gatherers and in providing offspring direct care. From the standpoint of paternal care, this type of scenario highlights a presumed deep evolutionary history in hominins of male indirect care in the form of resource provisioning, particularly of meat. This type of scenario enjoyed support from analogies drawn from recently studied hunter-gatherers and archaeological evidence such as stone tool cut marks on presumed prey bones as well as postulated meat-processing benefits derived from stone tool traditions tracing back 2.6 million years.

However, others have challenged such 'Man the Hunter' scenarios on various grounds. One contention is that in hunter-gatherer societies men tend to focus on large game for purposes of showing off or costly signaling rather than for purposes of provisioning one's wife and offspring (Hawkes 1991). There is support for the view that among hunter-gatherer societies some of men's provisioning efforts have wider social benefits than family provisioning, with enhanced male status perhaps translating into reproductive fitness benefits. However, there is also evidence-such as men targeting resources such as small game and honey that disproportionately flow to their wives and offspring, and men providing more resources to biological offspring than stepoffspring-that is consistent with provisioning (Gurven and Hill 2009; Marlowe 2010).

More full consideration of potential human paternal care in the form of paternal provisioning entails several other issues. The history of hunting technology innovation, with spears first found approximately 400,000 years ago, and bows and arrows around 30,000 years ago, means that hominin male hunting efficiency in the past was likely much lower than that observed among recently studied foragers (Marlowe 2005). Furthermore, a major feature of human reproduction is that hunter-gatherers interbirth intervals (time between successive births) of approximately 3-4 years are considerably lower than would be expected for an ape of our body size (Robson and Wood 2008). Orangutan interbirth intervals in the wild are approximately 8 years, the longest of any terrestrial mammal, whereas interbirth intervals of chimpanzees and gorillas in the wild tend to be around 4-6 years. A combination of enhanced hominin female foraging efficiency (e.g., through use of technologies such as digging sticks) and food provisioning by other group members such as grandmothers and husbands enables humans to reproduce at faster rates-the lower interbirth intervals-than would otherwise be expected. To the degree husbands contribute to these reductions in interbirth intervals, the main benefit of paternal provisioning may be in facilitating faster reproductive rates rather than having impacts on offspring survival. There is no good analogy or homology for paternal food provisioning among Great Apes, indicating that whatever the evolutionary timing of its origin among hominins, and cautious over the mixed role of paternal care/costly signaling, this is a derived feature of humans.

Apart from food provisioning and "Man the Hunter" scenarios, human indirect paternal care could entail protective services. Considerable attention has been given to the potential role of infanticide prevention as an indirect form of paternal care among primates (Hausfater and Hrdy 1984). Among Great Apes, an interpretation that gorilla male infanticide protection services seems consistent with the attribution of infant mortality to infanticide among a fair number of cases, and apparent role fulfilled by males of offspring defense against potential male group intruders (Campbell et al. 2007). Among humans, infanticide prevention as an indirect form of paternal care among recently studied hunter-gatherers or across a wider array of contemporary societies does not seem well supported: while stepfather presence is associated with elevated offspring mortality and abuse risk in various studies (Daly and Wilson 1999), these cases are relatively rare and seem incidental to low male emotional attachment rather than adaptive reproductive strategies.
An additional potential form of indirect human paternal care is defense against predators. While relatively few hunter-gatherers die at the maws of predators such as leopards or large bears, it is reasonable to imagine that male protective services help account for some of this reduction in mortality, but also difficult to quantify this potential form of indirect paternal care.

Another form of indirect paternal care-passing along non-food material resources such as land or livestock-seems to have been derived recently in human history, consistent with the expanded array of forms of heritable wealth (Gray and Anderson 2010; Low 2000). Fathers may help their sons marry by providing resources such as livestock or land to serve as bridewealth in many societies. Fathers may leave an inheritance upon death consisting of money, a house, land, or other such material resources; often these are left with a spouse, with benefits further extended to offspring, making this also a form of indirect paternal care. Since accumulations of wealth of these sorts would only extend to some fairly recent complex hunter-gatherers and other societies relying on non-forager subsistence modes, these don't project far in evolutionary history, and have no apparent analogy or homology among Great Apes.

As far as forms of direct paternal care, these can be assessed in various ways. Through studies of time allocation among hunter-gatherers such as the Hadza and Aka, scholars have helped clarify the amount of time fathers spend with their children primarily during waking hours, but also in some cases forms of direct care such as holding or carrying (Hewlett 1992, Marlowe 1999). Hunter-gather fathers, with the main exception of the Aka, spend a relatively small fraction of their waking hours in direct contact care of their young offspring, or even in close proximity. Part of that pattern seems related to the sexual division of labor, in which husbands and wives are often spatially segregated across the day, focused on different economic and social activities. Other caregivers such as mothers, primarily, but also grandmothers and other female relatives including older sisters play important roles in direct childcare. At nighttime, hunter-gatherer fathers tend to sleep in close proximity to a wife and their young children, providing additional time to tend to form attachments with their offspring.
The amount of time spent by human hunter-gatherer fathers in direct care is noteworthy when contrasted with the Great Apes (Smith 2005). Chimpanzee, bonobo, and orangutan males may not well know which offspring they have fathered (see control of paternity), and there has been little suggestion that fathers of these species devote any attention to maintaining proximity, holding, or carrying putative biological offspring. Among gorillas, fathers may tolerate offspring and spend waking hours near them, suggesting some modest degree of direct paternal care among gorillas too (Smith 2005). The phylogenetic pattern of human and Great Ape direct paternal care suggests that it was derived among hominins. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that hunter-gatherer fathers tend to spend more time in direct care of children than is true of many agricultural and pastoralist societies, in part a reflection of greater polygyny among such latter societies which comes at expense to direct paternal care.

A final, possibly uniquely human, feature of paternal care is that related to offspring social or moral development (Gray and Anderson 2010). Fathers can contribute to their offspring's social success by facilitating their children's incorporation into beneficial social networks and fostering the development of beliefs and behaviors that yield reproductive success in the local environment (e.g., practice at being a good hunter or honey collector, with later social and reproductive rewards to follow). These types of paternal care often entail mostly modeling rather than teaching in hunter-gatherers or other small-scale societies, and are often sex-specific, with fathers tending to spend more time with their sons than daughters during their children's late childhood and adolescence. The nature of father-son interactions tends to involve fewer conflicts in hunter-gatherers, probably in part because of a lack of heritable forms of wealth, compared with agriculturalists, pastoralists, and other kinds of societies (Schlegel and Barry 1991).

Implications for Understanding Modern Humans:

Human paternal care is a defining, derived characteristic. The specific forms of paternal care-direct, indirect, fostering social development-may have different evolutionary origins, but collectively stand out compared with Great Apes.

References:

Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, Eds. 2007. Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Daly M, Wilson M. 1999. The Truth About Cinderella. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gray PB and Anderson KG. 2010. Fatherhood: Evolution and Human Paternal Behavior. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Gurven M, Hill K. 2009. Why do men hunt? A reevaluation of "Man the Hunter" and the sexual division of labor. Current Anthropology 50: 51-74.
Hawkes K. 1991. Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals. Ethology and Sociobiology 12: 29-54.
Hewlett B, Ed. 1992. Father-Child Relations: Cultural and Biosocial Contexts. New York: Aldine.
Hewlett B. 1991. Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Hausfater G, Hrdy SB. 1984. Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Aldine.
Kleiman DG, Malcolm JR. 1981. The evolution of male parental investment in primates. In Parental Care in Mammals, ed. DJ Gubernick and PH Klopfer, pp. 347-387. New York: Plenum.
Lancaster JB, Lancaster CS. 1983. Parental investment: The hominid adaptation. In How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey, ed. D. Ortner, pp. 33-65. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press.
Lovejoy CO. 1981. The origin of man. Science 211: 341-350.
Low B. 2000. Why Sex Matters. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Marlowe F. 2010. The Hadza: Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania. California: University of California Press.
Marlowe F. 2005. Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 14: 54-67.
Marlowe F. 1999. Showoffs or providers? The parenting effort of Hadza men. Evolution and Human Behavior 20: 391-404.
Robson SL, Wood B. 2008. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution. Journal of Anatomy 212: 394-425.
Schlegel A, Barry III H. 1991. Adolescence: An Anthropological Inquiry. New York: The Free Press.
Smith HJ. 2005. Parenting for Primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..

3 Chapter                            Chapter 5

4