1-6-10 Koran 

 0 Contents 1 Background 1-6 Islam

 Wake Up 1-6-12

1-6-11 * The Distorted Histories Of Islam And Jews In Spain

1-6-11-00 BBC's h2g2 - The History of Spain
1-6-11-01 The Battle On The Guadalete River - Roderic
1-6-11-02 A Partial Public Rebuttal
1-6-11-03 Martyrs Recorded In Just Cordova From Just 850-859
1-6-11-04 BBC - Muslim Spain (711-1492)
1-6-11-05 BBC - h2g2 - The Moorish Conquest of Spain
1-6-11-06 Al-Andalus - Wikipedia
1-6-11-07 Intelligent TV's False Representation Of Islam In Spain
2-4-11-08 What Can Medieval Spain Teach Us about Muslim-Jewish Relations?
1-6-11-09 Charles The Hammer - saves West from Islam
1-6-11-10 Spreading Fear But Is What Is Said True Or False? True!
1-6-11-11 Arab Psychologist Confronts The Backwardness
1-6-11-12 Introduction To The Background Of Distortion
1-6-11-13 Michelle Obama made dusk visit to Great Mosque of Granada
1-6-11-14 History of Jihad Against the Spaniards
1-6-11-15 spain-dhimmitude
1-6-11-16 My Comments

Religion - Christianity

Prior to the Middle Ages, the Visigoths, as well as other Germanic peoples, followed what is now referred to as Germanic paganism. While the Germanic peoples were slowly converted to Christianity by varying means, many elements of the pre-Christian culture and indigenous beliefs remained firmly in place after the conversion process, particularly in the more rural and distant regions.

The Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Vandals were Christianized while they were still outside the bounds of the Roman Empire; however, they converted to Arianism rather than to the Nicean ("Catholic") version followed by most Romans, who considered them heretics. The Visigothic leadership maintained its Arianism up until at least the reign of King Liuvigild.

There was a religious gulf between the Visigoths, who had for a long time adhered to Arianism, and their Catholic subjects in Hispania. The Iberian Visigoths continued to be Arians until 589. There were also deep sectarian splits among the Catholic population of the peninsula. The ascetic Priscillian of Avila was martyred by the Catholic usurper Magnus Maximus in 385, who was trying to prove his correct religious credentials against heretics, before the Visigothic period, and the persecution continued in subsequent generations as "Priscillianist" heretics were rooted out. At the very beginning of Leo I's pontificate, in the years 444–447, Turribius, bishop of Astorga in León, sent to Rome a memorandum warning that Priscillianism was by no means dead, reporting that it numbered even bishops among its supporters, and asking the aid of the Roman See. The distance was insurmountable in the 5th century.[45] Nevertheless, Leo intervened, by forwarding a set of propositions that each bishop was required to sign: all did. But if Priscillianist bishops hesitated to be barred from their sees, a passionately concerned segment of Christian communities in Iberia were disaffected from the more orthodox hierarchy and welcomed the tolerant Arian Visigoths. The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order.[46]

When the Visigoths took over Spain, Jews constituted a large and very ancient proportion of the population. Many were farmers, but they worked in a wide range of occupations, and were a major component of the urbanized population of the larger towns particularly of eastern Spain. During the period in which the Visigoths adhered to Arianism, the situation of the Jews seems to have remained relatively good. Previous Roman and Byzantine law determined their status, and it already sharply discriminated against them, but royal jurisdiction was in any case quite limited: local lords and populations related to Jews as they saw fit. We read of rabbis being asked by non-Jews to bless their fields, for example.[47] "Some Jews held ranking posts in the government or the army; others were recruited and organized for garrison service; still others continued to hold senatorial rank."[48] In general, then, they were well respected and well treated.

However, this changed with the conversion of Reccared I to Catholicism in 589. Catholic conversion across Visigothic society reduced much of the friction between their people and the native Spanish population.[49] One chief purpose of this conversion was to unify the realm under the Church, and one of the key complaints of the Church had long been that Jews had too much status, prosperity and influence. Local nobles relied on their Jewish and non-Jewish sectors of the population to enhance the local economy and the noble's independent power. Visigothic political structure had traditionally given extensive powers to local nobles (who even elected their kings), so the king was in many ways merely 'the first amongst equals,' and central authority was weak. The status of the Jews therefore impacted both symbolically and politically on local aristocrats. Almost immediately, therefore, King Reccared convened the first Council of Toledo to "regulate" relations between Christians and Jews. The discriminatory laws passed at this Council seem not to have been well nor universally enforced, however, as indicated by several more Councils of Toledo that were held in subsequent years that repeated these laws, and extended their stringency. These entered canon law and became legal precedents in other parts of Europe as well. The culmination of this process occurred under King Sisibut, in 613, with a decree ordering the forced conversion of all Jews in Spain. However, even this apparently achieved only partial success: similar decrees were repeated with increasing irritation and effect by later kings, as central power was consolidated. These laws either decreed the forcible baptism of the Jews or forbade circumcision, Jewish rites and observance of the Sabbath and festivals. Throughout the seventh century, Jews were flogged, executed, had their property confiscated, were subjected to ruinous taxes, forbidden to trade and, at times, dragged to the baptismal font. Many were obliged to accept Christianity but continued privately to observe the Jewish religion and practices.[50]The decree of 613 set off a century of torment for Spanish Jewry, which was only ended by the Muslim conquest.[51]

The political aspects of the imposition of Church power cannot be ignored in these matters. With the conversion of the Visigothic kings to Chalcedonian Christianity, the bishops increased in power, until, at the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633, they took upon themselves the right that the nobles had previously had to select a king from among the royal family. This was the same synod that declared that all Jews must be baptised.

In the eighth through 11th centuries, the muwallad clan of the Banu Qasi claimed descent from the Visigothic Count Cassius.


Jewish Collaboration with Muslims During the Invasion of Spain https://islamversuseurope.blogspot.com/2013/09/jewish-collaboration-with-muslims.html