1-1-13 Myth?

0 Contents 1 Background 1-1 Cosmos

 Eternal Cycle 1-1-15

1-1-14 * 'God Particle' * Higgs Boson

Video 1 Higgs-Boson found - NOT- 'God Particle' NOT found - "BIG BANG",
Higgs boson
'God Particle' Higgs Boson May Not Exist After All: Physicists
Video 2
Nobel physics prize spotlights Higgs boson, plus Drs. Higgs and Englert
Video 3 Fermilab's Don Lincoln explains the Higgs field in a TedEd video.


Higgs boson Video

Scientists confirm 'God Particle' exists
Click to view saved video.

Published on Jul 4, 2012
Scientists say they've discovered a new particle whose characteristics match the most sought-after particle in physics.

For more CNN videos, check out our YouTube channel at http://www.youtube.com/cnn
Category News & Politics
License Standard YouTube License

Higgs boson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle initially theorised in 1964,[6][7] and tentatively confirmed to exist on 14 March 2013.[8] The discovery has been called "monumental"[9][10] because it appears to confirm the existence of the Higgs field,[11][12] which is pivotal to the Standard Model and other theories within particle physics. It would explain why some fundamental particles have mass when the symmetries controlling their interactions should require them to be massless, and—linked to this—why the weak force has a much shorter range than the electromagnetic force. Its existence and knowledge of its properties would impact cosmology and other areas of particle physics. It should allow physicists to finally validate the last untested area of the Standard Model's approach to fundamental particles and forces, guide other theories and discoveries in particle physics, and potentially lead to developments in "new" physics[13].

This unanswered question in fundamental physics is of such importance[11][12] that it led to a search of more than 40 years for the Higgs boson and finally the construction of one of the world's most expensive and complex experimental facilities to date, the Large Hadron Collider,[14] able to create Higgs bosons and other particles for observation and study. On 4 July 2012, it was announced that a previously unknown particle with a mass between 125 and 127 GeV/c2 (134.2 and 136.3 amu) had been detected; physicists suspected at the time that it was the Higgs boson.[15][10][16] By March 2013, the particle had been proven to behave, interact and decay in many of the ways predicted by the Standard Model, and was also tentatively confirmed to have + parity and zero spin,[1] two fundamental attributes of a Higgs boson—making it also the first known scalar particle to be discovered in nature,[17]—although a number of other properties were not fully proven, and some partial results do not yet precisely match those expected, and some data are still being awaited or analyzed.[2] As of March 2013, it was still uncertain whether its properties (when eventually known) will exactly match the predictions of the Standard Model, or whether, as predicted by some theories, multiple Higgs bosons exist.[3]

The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 each independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate sensationalism.[18][19] In 2013 Peter Higgs and François Englert were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery.[20]

In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson with no spin, electric charge, or color charge. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. It is a quantum excitation of one of the four components of the Higgs field, constituting a scalar field, with two neutral and two electrically charged components, and forms a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU(2) symmetry. The field has a "Mexican hat" shaped potential with nonzero strength everywhere (including otherwise empty space) which in its vacuum state breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction. When this happens, three components of the Higgs field are "absorbed" by the SU(2) and U(1) gauge bosons (the "Higgs mechanism") to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons of the weak force. The remaining electrically neutral component separately couples to other particles known as fermions (via Yukawa couplings), causing these to acquire mass as well. Some versions of the theory predict more than one kind of Higgs fields and bosons. Alternative "Higgsless" models would have been considered if the Higgs boson were not discovered.

Higgs boson
CMS Higgs-event.jpg
One possible signature of a Higgs boson from a simulated collision between two protons. It decays almost immediately into two jets of hadrons and two electrons, visible as lines.[Note 1]
Composition Elementary particle
Statistics Bosonic
Status A Higgs boson of mass ~ 125 GeV has been tentatively confirmed by CERN on 14 March 2013,[1][2][3] although unclear as yet which model the particle best supports or whether multiple Higgs bosons exist.[2]
(See: Current status)
Symbol H0
Theorised R. Brout, F. Englert, P. Higgs, G. S. Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and T. W. B. Kibble (1964)
Discovered Previously unknown boson confirmed to exist on 4 July 2012, by the ATLAS and CMS teams at the Large Hadron Collider; tentatively confirmed as a Higgs boson of some kind on 14 March 2013 (see above).
Mass 125.3 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (sys) GeV/c2,[4] 126.0 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.4 (sys) GeV/c2[5]
Mean lifetime 1.56×10−22 s[Note 2] (predicted in the Standard Model)
Decays into (observed) W and Z bosons, two photons. (Others still being studied)
Electric charge 0
Color charge 0
Spin 0 (tentatively confirmed at 125 GeV)[1]
Parity +1 (tentatively confirmed at 125 GeV)[1]

Higgs-Boson found - NOT- 'God Particle' NOT found - "BIG BANG",

Higgs-Boson found - NOT- 'God Particle' NOT found - "BIG BANG",
Click to view a saved video. flv.

Published on Jun 17, 2011

Higgs-Boson/God Particle doesn't exist, never has,
never will. String Theory, The "Big Bang", black holes,
Dark Matter, Dark Energy - all hocus pocus horse... (poop)

Heartbreaker: Major Setback in Quest for 'God Particle'



'God Particle' Higgs Boson May Not Exist After All: Physicists

  August 23, 2011 2:30 PM EDT 

The hunt for the elusive Higgs Boson, also known as the "God particle" which could solve the greatest mystery in physics may end in a non-event.

In July, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)'s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has once detected some signs of the particle, puffing up hope for the discovery of the God particle.

(Photo: Reuters)
Physicists Indicate Higgs Boson 'God' Particle Could be Science's White-Whale

The discovery was made when the two teams monitoring the centre's two colliders detected unusual bumps in the 120 and 140GeV spectrum. The scientists quickly noted that the bump could indicate the existence of the particle, which is thought to exist between the 114 and 185GeV spectrum.

Despite the accumulated efforts by scientists, a recent statement released at a conference in Mumbai, India said the LHC's "ATLAS and CMS experiments excluded with 95 percent certainty the existence of a Higgs over most of the mass region from 145 to 466 gigaelectronvolts (GeV)."

That covers the bulk of the mass range that is easiest for physicists to explore.

"At this moment we don't see any evidence for the Higgs in the lower mass region where it is likely to be," Howard Gordon, deputy US ATLAS operations program manager, told AFP.

"I think it is true that the hints that we saw in July are not as significant -- they weren't very significant in July -- but they have gotten less significant now," said Gordon.

Higgs boson, the sub-atomic particle fundamental to the understanding the nature of matter, was first hypothesized in 1964 by Edinburgh University physicist Peter Higgs.

As the lynchpin of the modern particle physics theory called the standard model, Higgs Boson is supposed to be giving mass to other particles.

If discovered, Higgs boson will help scientists answer long-held questions like what is the source of mass and why some particles have mass and others don't. It will also help them throw light on the "supersymmetric particles" and thereby throw light on the investigation into the make-up of dark matter.

Since the July report, LHC has produced more than the double amount of data.

"Thanks to the superb performance of the LHC, we have recorded a huge amount of new data over the last month," said Fabiola Gianotti, one of the teams searching for the Higgs.

"This has allowed us to make very good progress in our understanding of the Standard Model and in the search for the Higgs boson and new physics."

An updated assessment reveals the excess events are likely to be diminished, as the data sample is built up.

A lot of mysteries shrouding the beginning of the universe are locked in the Higgs boson. If it is not found, scientists will have to change the standard model postulation through which they explained how sub-atomic particles interacted with each other. If the Higgs boson is ruled out, another explanation for how particles get their mass will be needed.

Physicists will now be searching for the boson at lower and higher energy ranges; below 145 GeV or above 466 Gev. Several ranges in the middle, around 250 GeV, have not been fully excluded yet.

"These are exciting times for particle physics," commented CERN1's research director, Sergio Bertolucci. "Discoveries are almost assured within the next twelve months. If the Higgs exists, the LHC experiments will soon find it. If it does not, its absence will point the way to new physics."

Nobel physics prize spotlights Higgs boson, plus Drs. Higgs and Englert

Oct. 8, 2013 at 6:48 AM ET

Image: Englert and Higgs

Fabrice Coffrini / AFP / Getty Images file

Belgian physicist Francois Englert and British physicist Peter Higgs converse during the 2012 news conference announcing the discovery of a new subatomic particle matching the description of the Higgs boson.

Two theorists who predicted the existence of the subatomic Higgs boson almost 50 years ago — and were proven right just last year — won the Nobel Prize for physics on Tuesday.

British physicist Peter Higgs and Belgian physicist Francois Englert shared the honors, announced in Stockholm at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

"This year's prize is about something small that makes all the difference," said Staffan Normark, the academy's permanent secretary.

What is the Higgs boson?
It was Higgs, 84, who lent his name to the particle that sparked a multibillion-dollar quest. The 80-year-old Englert and his late colleague, Robert Brout, proposed the particle's existence independently in 1964.

Fermilab physicist Leon Lederman gave the Higgs boson its better-known nickname — "the God Particle" — because of its fundamental role in the mechanisms governing the cosmos. Today, physicists almost universally regret that nickname because it wrongly carries suggestions of the supernatural. Lederman himself later said he really meant to call it the "Goddamn Particle" because it proved so elusive.

The Higgs boson is the last fundamental particle predicted by one of physics' most successful theories, the Standard Model, and is thought to play a part in giving mass to some subatomic particles (such as the W-boson) but not others (such as the photon).

"If it wasn't there, we wouldn't be here," Higgs once told The Guardian.

Fermilab's Don Lincoln explains the Higgs field in a TedEd video.

Fermilab's Don Lincoln explains the Higgs field in a TedEd video.
Click here to view a saved copy. flv

Detecting the Higgs was the primary goal of the $10 billion Large Hadron Collider, built by Europe's CERN particle physics lab on the Swiss-French border.

Physicists finally reported the particle's discovery in July 2012, and its status as "a" Higgs boson — if not "the" Higgs boson — was confirmed this March.

The Nobel citation said the physics prize was given "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."

Reactions from scientists
The achievement was considered the odds-on favorite for Nobel recognition this year — but mystery swirled over who exactly would get the prize. At least three other physicists were involved in setting the theoretical framework for the particle's existence in 1964, but the traditions set for the scientific Nobel Prizes called for no more than three living individuals to be honored.

The choice was further complicated by the fact that thousands of physicists contributed to the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider. In the end, the Nobel committee awarded the prize only to Higgs and Englert. Higgs is a professor emeritus at the University of Edinburgh, while Englert is a professor emeritus at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles who also holds academic appointments at Tel Aviv University and Chapman University.

The Nobel committee's announcement was delayed for an hour — which drew a joking reaction from Englert. "I thought first I had to make a very low festivity, because I didn't see any announcement," he told reporters. "But now I'm very happy."

Normark declined to explain the delay. He also said the committee couldn't get in touch with Higgs directly to inform him of the prize. "Actually, we tried quite hard to get a hold of him, but of all the numbers we tried, he didn't answer," Normark said. The committee had to send him an email instead.

"I am overwhelmed to receive this award and thank the Royal Swedish Academy," Higgs said in a statement issued on his behalf by the University of Edinburgh. "I would also like to congratulate all those who have contributed to the discovery of this new particle and to thank my family, friends and colleagues for their support. I hope this recognition of fundamental science will help raise awareness of the value of blue-sky research."

CERN's director-general, Rolf Heuer, congratulated the laureates. "The discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN last year, which validates the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, marks the culmination of decades of intellectual effort by many people around the world,” Heuer said in a statement

What comes next?
The Swedish academy said that even though discovering the Higgs was "a great achievement" in the effort to complete physics' Standard Model, that theory is "not the final piece in the cosmic puzzle." For example, the model does not account for gravity, nor for mysterious dark matter. Englert said future research, at the LHC and elsewhere, will have to focus on dark matter as well as other way-out hypotheses such as supersymmetry and quantum gravity.

The Large Hadron Collider is currently shut down for maintenance and upgrades. "We are switching on the LHC again beginning in 2015, at a higher energy," Heuer told reporters at CERN's headquarters near Geneva. "And when you go to higher energy, you hope for new discoveries."

Image: Celebrating a Nobel Prize

Salvatore Di Nolfi / AP

CERN physicists celebrate with sparkling wine at the lab's headquarters, near Geneva, after Tuesday's announcement of the Nobel physics prize. Research conducted at CERN's Large Hadron Collider confirmed the existence of the Higgs boson.

Higgs and Englert will share the $1.2 million prize well before that, at an awards ceremony in Stockholm in December.

Nobel Prizes have been awarded since 1901, in accordance with the late Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel's will. Tuesday's announcement came a day after two Americans and a German researcher won the Nobel for medicine or physiology for their study of how hormones, enzymes and other key substances are transported within cells. The prizes for chemistry, peace, economics and literature are to be announced by other prize juries this week and next.

More about the Higgs quest:

Alan Boyle is NBCNews.com's science editor. Connect with the Cosmic Log community by "liking" the NBC News Science Facebook page, following @b0yle on Twitter and adding +Alan Boyle to your Google+ circles. To keep up with NBCNews.com's stories about science and space, sign up for the Tech & Science newsletter, delivered to your email in-box every weekday. You can also check out "The Case for Pluto," my book about the controversial dwarf planet and the search for new worlds.

Ignorance Rewarded

In empty space, the photon moves at c (the speed of light) { and its energy and momentum are related by E = pc, where p is the magnitude of the momentum vector p. This derives from the following relativistic relation, with m = 0:[14]

 This Ignorance and error are explained at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUcY5wJmwQ0)

  (The leapfrogging speed is c (the speed of light) swimming in the frictionless Aetheral sea giving a translational energy of (1/2)mc2. The Aether involved in forming the Vortons of the photon have number n of mass mv and rotate with a speed c giving a rotational energy of (1/2)nmvc2 or (1/2)mc2. This gives a total energy of E = mc2.  }

E^{2}=p^{2} c^{2} + m^{2} c^{4}.

The energy and momentum of a photon depend only on its frequency (n ) or inversely, its wavelength (λ):


This is empirical but confusing without insight into the mechanics of the photon.

The wavelength (λ) is the space between leapfrogging Vortons in the photon.

The frequency (n ) is the rate at which Vorton pairs in the photon pass by.

The question is, "How many Vortons are in a photon?".

A photon of a single leapfrogging Vorton pair has a frequency of 1 on any time scale and the wavelength is not meaningful for a single passing event.

A photon of frequency one has the mass  of 2 Vortons 2mv (a pair of leapfrogging Vortons)  or

E2 = hn 2 = m2c2 = 2mvc2 = 6.624 x 10-34 joule, c = 2.998 x 108 m / s, (299 792 458 m / s),  c2 = 8.988 1016 m2 / s2

2mv = 6.624 x 10-34Joules / c2 = (6.624 x 10-34 / 8.988 x 1016) kg = 7.37 10-51 kg

mv = (3.312 x 10-34 / 8.988 x 1016 ) kg

 = 3.685 x 10-51 kg.

  2mv = 6.624 x 10-34 /(2.998x108) kg= 6.624/8.988x 10-34-16 kg = 7.369 x 10-51kg

  Vorton mass
mv = 3.685 x 10-51kg.
Electron mass
em = 9.109 × 10-31 kg.
  Vortons in an electron
 em / mv =  9.109 × 10-31 kg/3.685 x 10-51kg = 2.472 x 1020 v(Vortons)

Now we need to be careful here. Planck's constant involves the internal mass mv, the rotational speed c and the tube diameter D.  But is Planck's constant representing a Vorton or a leapfrogging pair of Vortons?

At  this point assume the mass is the mass of a pair

  h = 2mvcD
  D = h / (2mvc )
 = h/(2mvc)
= ( 6.626 × 10-34 [m2 kg / s] ) / (7.369 x 10-51 [kg]  x 2.998 x 108 [m / s])
= 6.626 × 10-34 / 2.21 10-42
=   2.998 x 10-8[m]

The range of atomic volume radii (with the erroneous spherical assumption) is between 0.3 and 3 Å (Ångström) angstroms  or 0.3 and 3 x10-10 [m].

Spark photography image of a vortex ring in flight.

I'm stopping here for clearer thinking on photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, nuclei and atoms


where k is the wave vector (where the wave number k = |k| = 2π/λ), ω = 2πν is the angular frequency, and ħ = h/2π is the reduced Planck constant.[15]

Since p points in the direction of the photon's propagation, the magnitude of the momentum is

p=\hbar k=\frac{h\nu}{c}=\frac{h}{\lambda}.

The photon also carries spin angular momentum that does not depend on its frequency.[16] The magnitude of its spin is \scriptstyle{\sqrt{2} \hbar} and the component measured along its direction of motion, its helicity, must be ±ħ. These two possible helicities, called right-handed and left-handed, correspond to the two possible circular polarization states of the photon.[17]