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1-1-07 * Real Fluid Dynamics And Vorton Analogy

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                               FLUID MECHANICS DIVISION
           Department of Mechanical Engineering

                        In 2007 I Contacted Dr. Lim for down loading of his elliptical vortex work

T. T. Lim 
Ph.D., B.E(Hons)
University of Melbourne, AUSTRALIA.

T. T. Lim received his B.E.(Hons) and Ph.D. from the University of Melbourne, Australia.  He spent two years as a Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center, USA, before returning to the University of Melbourne.  He joined the National University of Singapore in 1993. 



Tel:      (65) 6516-6350
Fax:     (65) 6779-1459
Email:  mpelimtt@nus.edu.sg

Current Appointment:
Associate Professor

Research Interests:

Vortex dynamics  
Swirling flow
Bluff body aerodynamics
Unsteady aerodynamics
Flow visualization

*Selected Publications

*Video Gallery

*Flow Gallery



Selected Publications


(1) Smits, A.J.  & Lim, T. T. (2000). Flow Visualization: Techniques and Examples, Imperial College Press. 


(1)  Lim, T. T. & Nickels, T.B. (1995). Vortex Rings.  In Fluid Vortices.  Editor:  Sheldon I. Green,  Kluwer Academic Publishers. 

(2)  Lim, T. T. (2000).  Smoke and Dye Visualization.   In Flow Visualization: Techniques and Examples.  Editors: A.J. Smits and T. T. Lim,  Imperial College Press.


(1)  Lim, T. T. & Nickels, T.B (1992).  Instability and reconnection in the head-on collision of two vortex rings.  NATURE, Vol. 357. 

(2)   Kelso, R.M., T. T. Lim & A.E. Perry (1996).  An experimental study of a round jet in a cross-flow. J. FLUID MECH. Vol. 306. 

(3)   Lim, T. T. (1997).  On the role of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability in the formation of turbulent vortex rings.  FLUID DYNAMICS RESEARCH, Vol. 21. 

(4)  Lim, T. T. (1997).  A note on the leapfrogging between two coaxial vortex rings at low Reynolds numbers. PHYS FLUIDS, Vol. 9, no 1. 

(5)  Lim, T. T. (1998).  On the breakdown of vortex rings from inclined nozzles.  PHYS FLUIDS,  Vol. 10, no:7. 

(6)  Kelso, R.M., T. T. Lim & A.E. Perry (1998).  New experimental observations of vortical motions in tranverse jets.   PHYS FLUIDS,  Vol.10, no:9. 

(7)  T. T. Lim, Y.T. Chew and Xiao Qing (1998).  A new flow regime in a Taylor-Couette flow.  PHYS FLUIDS, Vol. 10,  no:12.

(8)  S. C. Luo, T. T. Lim, K. B. Lua and H. T. Chia, E. K. R. Goh  and Q. W. Ho (1998).  The effects of an elliptical tip on the flowfield around an axi-symmetric body at high angle of attack.  AIAA JOURNAL, Vol 36, no:10. 

(9) T. T. Lim, T.H. New and S.C. Luo (2001).  On the development of large-scale structures of a jet normal to a cross flowпїЅ. PHYS FLUIDS, Vol. 13.

(10) T.T. Lim, K.B. Lua  and S.C. Luo (2001).  Role of tip and edge geometry on vortex asymmetry, AIAA JOURNAL, Vol. 39. (11) Xiao Q, Lim TT, Chew YT (2002).  Second Taylor vortex flow: Effects of radius ratio and aspect ratio, PHYS FLUIDS, Vol. 14 .

(12) T.H. New, T. T. Lim and S.C. Luo (2003).  Elliptic jet in cross flow, J. FLUID MECH. Vol 494.

(13) T.H. New, T. T. Lim and S.C. Luo (2004).  A flowfield study of elliptic jets in a cross flow using DPIV technique, EXP. FLUIDS, Vol. 36.

(14) J. E. Cater, J. Soria & T. T. Lim (2004).  The interaction of the piston vortex with a piston-generated vortex ring, J. FLUID MECH., Vol. 449.

(15) T. T. Lim and K.S. Tan (2004).  A note on power-law scaling in a Taylor-Couette flow.  PHYS FLUIDS., Vol. 16.

(16) T. T. Lim, T.K. Sengupta & M. Chattopadhyay (2004). A visual study of vortex-induced sub-critical instability on a flat plate laminar boundary layer, EXP. FLUIDS., Vol. 37.

(17) T.T. Lim & Y.D. Cui (2005). On the generation of a spiral-type vortex breakdown in an enclosed cylindrical container, PHYS FLUIDS., Vol. 17.

(18) T.H. New, T. T. Lim & S.C. Luo (2006).  Effect of jet velocity profiles on a round jet in cross flow. EXP. FLUIDS, Vol. 40.

(19) J.M. Lopez, Y.D. Cui & T.T. Lim (2006). Experimental and numerical investigation of the competition between axisymmetric time-periodic modes in an enclosed swirling flow, PHYS FLUIDS, Vol. 18.

(20) Y.T. Ng, S.C. Luo, T. T. Lim & Q.W. Ho (2006). On swirl development in a square cross-sectioned, S-shaped duct, EXP. FLUIDS, Vol. 41.

(21) T.T. Lim, T.H. New & S.C. Luo (2006). Scaling of elliptic jets in cross-flow, AIAA JOURNAL,Vol. 44.

(22) Y.D. Cui, T.T. Lim & H.M. Tsai (2007). Control of vortex breakdown over a delta wing using forebody spanwise slot blowing, AIAA JOURNAL, Vol. 45.

(23) H. Singh, E.S. Ang, T.T. Lim & D.W. Hutmacher (2007). Flow modelling in a novel non-perfusion conical bioreactor, BIOTECH & BIOENG., Vol. 97.


Video Gallery



Flapping wings (click to view)  New
See also http://serve.me.nus.edu.sg/mav/



E.J.I.C.F(click to view)  New



Eddies in Captivity (click to view)

(Producers: A.E. Perry and T. T. Lim)

A clip of 20-minute sound color movie showing the eddying motion in coflowing jets and wakes.


Co-flowing jet (click to view) 




 Motion of an Elliptic Vortex Ring  (click to view)   New


Head-on Collision of Two Vortex Rings

(a) Re =1071 (click to view):  NATURE, Vol. 357
(b) Re =1573 (click to view):  NATURE, Vol. 357      New    


Oblique Collision of Two Vortex Rings


Front View (click to view)

Top View (click to view)

Vortex Ring/Inclined Wall Interaction


Front View (click to view)



Vortex_Induced_Instability (click to view)  

Turbulent Spot

Turbulent Spot (click to view)  New

  Hairpin Vortices


Hairpin Vortices (click to view)  New

Hairpin Vortices (front View) (click to view)  New

(with A.E.Perry and R.M. Kelso) 

Flying Hot-wire system (click to view)



Flow Gallery

Life cycle of  vortex breakdown bubbles
(Lim, Cui and Lopez)

Bubble-Type Vortex Breakdowns in an Enclosed Cylinder

(Lim & Cui: Phys. Fluids 17)

A Spiral-Type Vortex Breakdown in an Enclosed Cylinder
(Lim & Cui: Phys. Fluids 17)


Co-axial Vortex Rings



Co-axial Vortex Rings in Cross Flow


An Elliptic Jet in Cross Flow (E.J.I.C.F.)
(New, Lim & Luo: J. Fluid Mech. Vol. 494)


E.J.I.C.F: Cross-section Normal to Jet Trajectory
(New, Lim & Luo: J. Fluid Mech. Vol. 494)

 E.J.I.C.F: Cross-section Normal to Cross Flow
(New, Lim & Luo: J. Fluid Mech. Vol. 494)

A Round Jet in a Cross Flow 
(Kelso, Lim & Perry: JFM, Vol. 306)

 A Round Jet in Cross Flow: LIF Image
(Lim, New & Luo: Phys Fluids, Vol. 13)

A Free Jet: Vortex Tripling


High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics
(Luo, Lim, Lua & others..... AIAA J, Vol. 36)


Accelerated Flow Past A NACA 0015 Aerofoil 
(a=30o, Re=5000, a=0.031m/s2)

Flow Field of an Oscillating Elliptic Wing (PIV)
(Chng, Lim, et al. 15 AFMC Re=1000, k=0.5)


Vorticity Field of An Oscillating Elliptic Wing (PIV)
(Chng, Lim, et al. 15 AFMC Re=1000, k=0.5)


Taylor-Couette Flow
(Lim, Chew & Xiao: Phys Fluids, Vol. 10,


Breakdown of an Inclined Vortex Ring
(T. T. Lim : Phys Fluids, Vol. 10, no:7)


 Head-on Collision of Vortex Rings (Re=1000)
(Lim & Nickels: Nature, Vol. 357)


 Head-on Collision of Vortex Rings (Higher Re)
(Lim & Nickels: Nature, Vol. 357)


Not So Perfect Head-on Collision of Vortex Rings

      Leapfrogging Between Two Vortex Rings 
    (T. T. Lim: Phys Fluids, Vol. 9)


    Positively Buoyant Jet: Cigarette Smoke
    (Perry & Lim: JFM, Vol. 88)


Positively Buoyant Jet: Chimney smoke
(Perry & Lim: JFM, Vol. 88)


Positively Buoyant Jet: Laboratory produced
(Perry & Lim: JFM, Vol. 88)


Karman Vortex Street
(Perry, Chong & Lim: JFM, Vol. 116)


Vortex Ring
(Lim & Nickels: Fluid Vortices)


Negatively Buoyant Wake
( Perry & Lim: JFM, Vol. 88)


Interaction of Two Vortex Rings at an Angle
(T. T. Lim: Expt in Fluids, Vol. 7)


A Vortex Ring Interacting With an Inclined Wall
(T. T. Lim: Expt in Fluids, Vol. 7)


    Hairpin Vortices
    (Perry, Lim & Teh: JFM, Vol. 104)


    Laser Cross Section of Hairpin Vortices
    (Perry, Lim & Teh: JFM, Vol. 104)



    A Turbulent Spot
    (Perry, Lim & Teh: JFM, Vol. 104)



    Water Tunnel Facility

Trisonic Wind Tunnel

Test-section: 1.2m x 1.2m, Mach No: 4 (max)

A joint project between NUS and DSO National Laboratories

All video and flow images are subject to copyright




"Be nice to people on your way up because you meet
them on your  way down
Jimmy Durante
"Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open"
Sir James Dewar
"Truth is what stands the test of experience" 
Albert Einstein
"Well done is better than well said"
Benjamin Franklin
"You cannot create experience. You must undergo it"
 Albert Camus  
"Be modest! It is the kind of pride least likely to offend"
Jules Renard
"Science is not dictated by majority votes"   
"The objective of basic research is to learn how the world works"
John S. Rigden
"...it is the nature of great research that one cannot predict
what basic new insights about the workings of nature will emerge, nor can one dream of what practical applications will follow." 
 John S. Rigden
"Science is an international enterprise................there is no German science, no Asian Science, no Hindu Science"  
John S. Rigden
"Happiness depends on ourselves"
"All I can say about life is, oh God, enjoy it!
Bob Newhart

Updated in April, 2007.        


Created on 1st August, 2001.