Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age
- Bente Pakkenberg1,*, Hans Jorgen G. Gundersen2
Article first published online: 6 DEC 1998 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970728)384:2<312::AID-CNE10>3.0.CO;2-K
Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
How to Cite
Pakkenberg, B. and Gundersen, H. J. G. (1997), Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age. J. Comp. Neurol.,
384: 312–320. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970728)384:2<312::AID-CNE10>3.0.CO;2-K
- Issue published online: 6 DEC 1998
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 1998
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 MAR 1997
- Manuscript Revised: 8 JAN 1997
- Manuscript Received: 20 SEP 1996
- The Danish Medical Research Council
- The Hartmann Brothers' Foundation
- The Ferd. and Ellen Hindsgaul Foundation
- Novo Nordisk Foundation
- Direktør Emil Hertz and wife Inger Hertz' Foundation
- brain volumes;
- cerebral structure;
Modern stereological methods provide precise and reliable estimates of the number of neurons in specific regions of the brain. We
decided to estimate the total number of neocortical neurons in the normal human brain and to analyze it with respect to the major macro- and
microscopical structural components, to study the internal relationships of these components, and to quantitate the influence of important
physiological variables on brain structure. The 94 brains reported represent a consecutive collection of brains from the general Danish
population. The average numbers of neocortical neurons were 19 billion in female brains and 23 billion in male brains, a 16% difference. In
our study, which covered the age range from 20 years to 90 years, approximately 10% of all neocortical neurons are lost over the life span in
both sexes. Sex and age were the main determinants of the total number of neurons in the human neocortex, whereas body size, per se, had no
influence on neuron number. Some of the data presented have been analyzed by using new mathematical designs. An equation predicting the total
neocortical neuron number in any individual in which sex and age are known is provided. J. Comp. Neurol. 384:312-320, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss,
Men Have 3 1/2 Billion or 18.1% More Brain Cells than women!
BY: KRSNA DASA
May 27, UK (SUN) — Men Have 3 1/2 Billion or 18.1% More Brain Cells than women!
COPENHAGEN (July 28, 1997 10:04 a.m. EDT) - Men have 16 percent more brain cells than women, but the extra gray matter does not make them
any smarter, Danish researchers report.
Neurologists Bente Pakkenberg of Kommunehospitalet and Hans Joergen Gundersen of Aarhus University analyzed the
brains of 94 Danes who died between the ages of 20 and 90.
Their final tally, reported in the Journal of Comparative Neurology, was that men have an average of 22.8 billion
brain cells, compared to 19.3 billion for women.
"We were surprised by the difference," Pakkenberg told AFP. "We did not think it was so big, even
though men's brains weigh more." That disparity is 150 grams, she said.
The research team used a technique that analyzed the brain layer by layer and gave a more accurate cell count, she
said. But Pakkenberg insisted the difference in cell number does not show up in tests measuring male and female intelligence.
"In these tests it is possible that men are better at some things than women, but in general they are not more
intelligent," she said.
522,000 men and 522,000 women take the SAT each year. Men with 3 1/2 billion more brain cells each, who score an average of 53
points higher. It is scientifically impossible to prove that this is because of "discrimination" and not because of their collective 1.8
quadrillion more brain cells. Men collectively score 27.6 million more SAT points than females, which is 65.2 million brain cells for each extra SAT
points There is utterly no way for anyone to KNOW or to prove that these two variables are independent of each other.
To agree that the analyses and calculations necessary to take the SAT take place in the brain is correct. To agree
that the precise process by which this occurs is not well understood is correct. To know that these extra 3 1/2 billion brain cells constitute 18.1% of
the male brain's mass is correct.
But there is no analytical process whatsoever by which it can be proven that there is absolutely no causation for
this precise correlation. There is no way to know that not even one single one of these extra 1.8 quadrillion brain cells contributed to even a 0.001%
increase in the SAT score of at least one male. How could exactly 3 1/2 billion brain cells--18.1% of the male brain--refuse to participate in the SAT
test (out of a sense of fairness to females?), while the remaining 19.5 billion brain cells continue to "discriminate" against females, by
outperforming female brains by 18.5%?
If 18.1% of the brains of these 522,000 male test takers were removed, would those males still collectively score
27.6 million more SAT points than females? What is it about this 81.9% of the male brain that it performs 18.5% better than a female brain of equivalent
size? Is it made of a superior material?
Who would bet their life that not even 2 out of these 1.8 quadrillion brain cells might sneak across the feminists'
invisible line and cause a 0.001% increase in an unsuspecting male's SAT Math score? Who is willing to bet trillions of dollars of taxpayers' money that
this is the case?
The statement is an utterly absurd and cynical hypothesis from a bunch of PMS charged feminists whose frustration
about their inability to grasp abstract concepts shines through in the international press. For each 1% increase in the percent of feminists who
"think": "I am good at math", their TIMSS scores decrease two points.
Such absurd assumptions and social engineering by feminists who haven't got a clue what engineering and science are
increased the cost of education in the US from 4.8% of GDP in 1959 to 7.6% of GDP in 1993 (Table 31). They increased education costs by $215 billion
just last year and more than $7.3 trillion over the last 40 years. Yet SAT scores plunged 98 points, 98% of those taking the GRE test who score in the
fiftieth percentile are males and only 2% females, the US is dead last in TIMSS geometry & last in IAEP math, & the "gender gap" in
test scores didn't budge a point!
Educators have turned a stupid idea into an utterly remarkable failure! US education ranks as one of the best of the
Twenty Nine Phenomenal Federal Flops.
Copyright (C) 1997 Nando.net
Differences Between Boys and Girls Are Found in Nature and the Brain not in Socialization
Renowned Experts Tell National Press Club Audience
WASHINGTON, DC (September 18, 2000) - Leading experts on research into brain differences between boys and girls, told a National Press Club
luncheon crowd on Friday the 15th that biology-not social construction-explains sex differences. This has significant implications for both education
and the workplace.
Speaking at an event sponsored by the Independent Women's Forum
(IWF), "The XY Files: The Truth is Out There
About the Differences Between Boys and Girls," the panel of experts noted that both society and boys are being harmed by fashionable, but misguided,
feminist notions. Said Lionel Tiger, Charles Darwin Professor of Anthropology at Rutgers University and author of The Decline of Males:
androgynous commitment to the notion that the sexes are all the same is essentially causing chronic private trauma in countless lives because there is
no articulation between the social structure and the real needs of and feelings of people."
Challenging the gender experts who see male/female differences as created by socialization, Doreen Kimura, Professor
of Psychology at Simon Fraser University and author of Sex and Cognition, presented science.
"Some of the sex differences in intellectual or cognitive
patterns are biologically influenced early in life and a major factor is the different hormonal milieu experienced by males and females before or
shortly after birth," she reported.
Patricia Hausman, a behavioral scientist specializing in the nature and origins of human sex differences, agreed.
"Many argue that changes in the social environment could eliminate sex differences in interests," she said.
"To me, this perspective mistakenly
assumes that the ‘social environment' is something that Big People force on Little People. I think it is often the other way around. The Little
People send signals to the Big People about what they do and do not like, and the Big People respond accordingly. Parents who buy more dolls for a
daughter are probably not forcing them on her. More likely, they are reacting to observations that she did not find a toy truck particularly
captivating, but lavished attention on her first doll."
The refusal of the education system to accept what science says about boys and girls is having devastating effects on
children, especially boys, the panelists warned. "The problem with [popular feminist] dogma is that it gives enormous latitude to educators who want
to tamper with children's gender identities," said Christina Hoff Sommers, W.H. Brady Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and author of The
War Against Boys. "This dogma has inspired activist-educators to take on the challenge of resocializing little boys to be more like little girls."
Tiger concluded by echoing
Sommers. "We're now trying to solve the problem of young males by saying that
they're essentially young females," he said. "What is happening though is that boys do less well in school and they don't go on to college as
often. This will have implications for these young men to be seen as acceptable or plausible candidates for marriage."
Which leads to a warning for all of those so-called gender experts: Don't mess with Mother Nature.
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