1-0-1 Introduction

0 Contents 1 Background 1-0 Overview

The Savanna 1-0-3

1-0-2 * Adam Then Adam's First Rib And Later Adam's Second Rib  

The origin of life (Adam). Adam invading Adam (Eve). Adam invading Eve (Female Mitochondria).


Voice Introduction. mp3

 

 Introduction

1a What do we have to start with? God's Dirt
      Chemical Evolution - The primitive Earth
2a Our Ability To Investigate. God's Law: Survival Requires Replication
      Origins of Life: Emergence of Self-Replication on Early Earth 
3a Our Curiosity. Adam was created out of God's dirt
      All Species Evolved From Single Cell, Study Finds
4a Our Background Of Experience. Adam's First Rib Invasion
5a Prior Relevant Experience. Adam's Second Rib Invasion

1 All Species Evolved From Single Cell, Study Finds
2 Our Background Of Experience. Adam's First Rib Invasion 
3 Prior Relevant Experience. Adam's Second Rib Invasion

1-0-2-0 Astrobiology
1-0-2-1 Panspermia
1-0-2-2 Creation myth
1-0-2-3 Chemical Evolution - The primitive Earth
1-0-2-4 The origin of life Abiogenesis

Introduction

We need to operationally define what we mean by our words.

It is hard to think outside our limited box! We think of time as limited where every living thing dies. We think of space as having limits because everything we observe has traveled a finite distance. It is hard for us to think of Space as infinite and eternal, Matter in Space as infinite and eternal but finite in density, capacity for Motion of Matter in Space as infinite and eturnal but finite in density with equipartition taken into consideration,

The main point here is to break with the human intuition of finiteness of time. We feel this because we can only travel a finite distance. What we experience (including our life) we can only travel so fast and hence only travel a finite distance in Space! Also, our life has a beginning and an end with a finite time in between. 

Another point for us, things only exist for so long. Houses and cars like our bodies only last for so long so it is hard for us to think of Space, Matter in Space and the capacity for motion of matter in space to be infinite and eternal (not created and not destroyed). 

But Space, Matter in Space and the capacity for Motion of Matter in Space are postulated to be Infinite and Eternal. This is what I operationally define as God. 

Also, the laws that govern Space, Matter in Space and the capacity for Motion of Matter in Space are postulated as unchanging and what I operationally define as God's Eturnal Unchanging Laws of Physical  Reality.

An  earlier presentation a

1a What do we have to start with? God's Dirt

Chemical Evolution - The primitive Earth 

http://science.jrank.org/pages/1387/Chemical-Evolution.html

Atmosphere water life environment

Chemical evolution describes chemical changes on the primitive Earth that gave rise to the first forms of life. The first living things on Earth were prokaryotes with a type of cell similar to present-day bacteria. Prokaryote fossils have been found in 3.4-million-year-old rock in the southern part of Africa, and in even older rocks in Australia, including some that appear to be photosynthetic. All forms of life are theorized to have evolved from the original prokaryotes, probably 3.5-4.0 billion years ago.

The "Astronomers believe" statement below is quoting some astronomers and their false world view that the Universe's matter is  finite and was all collected in a confined space creating the "big bang" origin of the Universe.

Some event analogous to the "big bang" happened in a localized place in space forming our Galaxy and an even earlier and larger event of accumulation of matter forming our String Of Galaxies! 

The mechanism is 1) shadow effect compression (Gravity) and 2) increase in degrees of freedom permiting greater desity and energy per unit mass increasing with each degree of freedom!

The chemical and physical conditions of the primitive Earth are invoked to explain the origin of life, which was preceded by chemical evolution of organic chemicals. Astronomers believe that 20-30 billion years ago, all matter was concentrated in a single mass, and that it blew apart with a "big bang." In time, a disk-shaped cloud of dust condensed and formed the Sun, and the peripheral matter formed its planets. Heat produced by compaction, radiation, and impacting meteorites melted Earth. Then, as the planet cooled, Earth's layers formed. The first atmosphere was made up of hot hydrogen gas, too light to be held by Earth's gravity. Water vapor, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and methane replaced the hydrogen atmosphere. As Earth cooled, water vapor condensed and torrential rains filled up its basins, thereby forming the seas. Also present were lightning, volcanic activity, and ultraviolet radiation. It was in this setting that life began.

According to one theory, chemical evolution occurred in four stages.

In the first stage of chemical evolution, molecules in the primitive environment formed simple organic substances, such as amino acids. This concept was first proposed in 1936 in a book entitled, "The Origin of Life on Earth," written by the Russian scientist, Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin. He considered hydrogen, ammonia, water vapor, and methane to be components in the early atmosphere. Oxygen was lacking in this chemically-reducing environment. He stated that ultraviolet radiation from the Sun provided the energy for the transformation of these substances into organic molecules. Scientists today state that such spontaneous synthesis occurred only in the primitive environment. Abiogenesis became impossible when photosynthetic cells added oxygen to the atmosphere. The oxygen in the atmosphere gave rise to the ozone layer which then shielded Earth from ultraviolet radiation. Newer versions of this hypothesis contend that the primitive atmosphere also contained carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen. Present-day volcanoes emit these substances.

In 1957, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey provided laboratory evidence that chemical evolution as described by Oparin could have occurred. Miller and Urey created an apparatus that simulated the primitive environment. They used a warmed flask of water for the ocean, and an atmosphere of water, hydrogen, ammonia and methane. Sparks discharged into the artificial atmosphere represented lightning. A condenser cooled the atmosphere, causing rain that returned water and dissolved compounds back to the simulated sea. When Miller and Urey analyzed the components of the solution after a week, they found various organic compounds had formed. These included some of the amino acids that compose the proteins of living things. Their results gave credence to the idea that simple substances in the warm primordial seas gave rise to the chemical building blocks of organisms.

In the second stage of chemical evolution, the simple organic molecules (such as amino acids) that formed and accumulated joined together into larger structures (such as proteins). The units linked to each other by the process of dehydration synthesis to form polymers. The problem is that the abiotic synthesis of polymers had to occur without the assistance of enzymes. In addition, these reactions give off water and would, therefore, not occur spontaneously in a watery environment. Sydney Fox of the University of Miami suggested that waves or rain in the primitive environment splashed organic monomers on fresh lava or hot rocks, which would have allowed polymers to form abiotically. When he tried to do this in his laboratory, Fox produced proteinoids?abiotically synthesized polypeptides.

The next step in chemical evolution suggests that polymers interacted with each other and organized into aggregates, known as protobionts. Protobionts are not capable of reproducing, but had other properties of living things. Scientists have successfully produced protobionts from organic molecules in the laboratory. In one study, proteinoids mixed with cool water assembled into droplets or microspheres that developed membranes on their surfaces. These are protobionts, with semipermeable and excitable membranes, similar to those found in cells.

In the final step of chemical evolution, protobionts developed the ability to reproduce and pass genetic information from one generation to the next. Some scientists theorize RNA to be the original hereditary molecule. Short polymers of RNA have been synthesized abiotically in the laboratory. In the 1980s, Thomas Cech and his associates at the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that RNA molecules can function as enzymes in cells. This implies that RNA molecules could have replicated in prebiotic cells without the use of protein enzymes. Variations of RNA molecules could have been produced by mutations and by errors during replication. Natural selection, operating on the different RNAs would have brought about subsequent evolutionary development. This would have fostered the survival of RNA sequences best suited to environmental parameters, such as temperature and salt concentration. As the protobionts grew and split, their RNA was passed on to offspring. In time, a diversity of prokaryote cells came into existence. Under the influence of natural selection, the prokaryotes could have given rise to the vast variety of life on Earth.

See also Amino acid.

Resources

Books: Keeton, William T., and James L. Gould. Biological Science. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1993.

Periodicals: Franklin, Carl. "Did Life Have a Simple Start?" New Scientist (October 2, 1993).

                       Radetsky, Peter. "How Did Life Start?" Discover (November 1992).

Bernice Essenfeld

KEY TERMS

Abiogenesis - Origin of living organisms from nonliving material. 
Autotroph - This refers to organisms that can synthesize their biochemical constituents using inorganic precursors and an external source of energy. 
Heterotroph - Organism that requires food from the environment since it is unable to synthesize nutrients from inorganic raw materials. 
Prokaryote - Type of cell that lacks a membrane enclosed nucleus. Found solely in bacteria.

Read more: Chemical Evolution - The primitive Earth - Atmosphere, Water, Life, and Environment - JRank Articles http://science.jrank.org/pages/1387/Chemical-Evolution.html#ixzz4L0EjbtQs

 

2a Our Ability To Investigate. God's Law: Survival Requires Replication 

Origins of Life: Emergence of Self-Replication on Early Earth

https://publishing.aip.org/publishing/journal-highlights/origins-life-new-model-may-explain-emergence-self-replication-early

Template-assisted replication, which helps polymers grow longer while passing on sequences from generation to generation, could have enabled jump from monomers to self-replicating polymers

From the Journal: The Journal of Chemical Physics.

By Laurel Hamers

WASHINGTON, D.C., July 28, 2015 -- When life on Earth began nearly 4 billion years ago, long before humans, dinosaurs or even the earliest single-celled forms of life roamed, it may have started as a hiccup rather than a roar: small, simple molecular building blocks known as "monomers" coming together into longer "polymer" chains and falling apart in the warm pools of primordial ooze over and over again.

Then, somewhere along the line, these growing polymer chains developed the ability to make copies of themselves. Competition between these molecules would allow the ones most efficient at making copies of themselves to do so faster or with greater abundance, a trait that would be shared by the copies they made. These rapid replicators would fill the soup faster than the other polymers, allowing the information they encoded to be passed on from one generation to another and, eventually, giving rise to what we think of today as life.

Or so the story goes. But with no fossil record to check from those early days, it's a narrative that still has some chapters missing. One question in particular remains problematic: what enabled the leap from a primordial soup of individual monomers to self-replicating polymer chains?

A new model published this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing, proposes a potential mechanism by which self-replication could have emerged. It posits that template-assisted ligation, the joining of two polymers by using a third, longer one as a template, could have enabled polymers to become self-replicating.

"We tried to fill this gap in understanding between simple physical systems to something that can behave in a life-like manner and transmit information," said Alexei Tkachenko, a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Tkachenko carried out the research alongside Sergei Maslov, a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with joint appointment at Brookhaven.

Origins of Self-Replication

Self-replication is a complicated process -- DNA, the basis for life on earth today, requires a coordinated cohort of enzymes and other molecules in order to duplicate itself. Early self-replicating systems were surely more rudimentary, but their existence in the first place is still somewhat baffling.

Tkachenko and Maslov have proposed a new model that shows how the earliest self-replicating molecules could have worked. Their model switches between "day" phases, where individual polymers float freely, and "night" phases, where they join together to form longer chains via template-assisted ligation. The phases are driven by cyclic changes in environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, or salinity, which throw the system out of equilibrium and induce the polymers to either come together or drift apart.

According to their model, during the night cycles, multiple short polymers bond to longer polymer strands, which act as templates. These longer template strands hold the shorter polymers in close enough proximity to each other that they can ligate to form a longer strand -- a complementary copy of at least part of the template. Over time, the newly synthesized polymers come to dominate, giving rise to an autocatalytic and self-sustaining system of molecules large enough to potentially encode blueprints for life, the model predicts.

Polymers can also link together without the aid of a template, but the process is somewhat more random -- a chain that forms in one generation will not necessarily be carried over into the next. Template-assisted ligation, on the other hand, is a more faithful means of preserving information, as the polymer chains of one generation are used to build the next. Thus, a model based on template-assisted ligation combines the lengthening of polymer chains with their replication, providing a potential mechanism for heritability.

While some previous studies have argued that a mix of the two is necessary for moving a system from monomers to self-replicating polymers, Maslov and Tkachenko's model demonstrates that it is physically possible for self-replication to emerge with only template-assisted ligation.

"What we have demonstrated for the first time is that even if all you have is template-assisted ligation, you can still bootstrap the system out of primordial soup," said Maslov.

The idea of template-assisted ligation driving self-replication was originally proposed in the 1980s, but in a qualitative manner. "Now it's a real model that you can run through a computer," said Tkachenko. "It's a solid piece of science to which you can add other features and study memory effects and inheritance."

Under Tkachenko and Maslov's model, the move from monomers to polymers is a very sudden one. It's also hysteretic -- that is, it takes a very certain set of conditions to make the initial leap from monomers to self-replicating polymers, but those stringent requirements are not necessary to maintain a system of self-replicating polymers once one has leapt over the first hurdle.

A schematic drawing of template-assisted ligation, shown in this model to give rise to autocatalytic system A schematic drawing of template-assisted ligation, shown in this model to give rise to autocatalytic systems CREDIT: Maslov and Tkachenko 

One limitation of the model that the researchers plan to address in future studies is its assumption that all polymer sequences are equally likely to occur. Transmission of information requires heritable variation in sequence frequencies -- certain combinations of bases code for particular proteins, which have different functions. The next step, then, is to consider a scenario in which some sequences become more common than others, allowing the system to transmit meaningful information.

Maslov and Tkachenko's model fits into the currently favored RNA world hypothesis -- the belief that life on earth started with autocatalytic RNA molecules that then lead to the more stable but more complex DNA as a mode of inheritance. But because it is so general, it could be used to test any origins of life hypothesis that relies on the emergence of a simple autocatalytic system.

"The model, by design, is very general," said Maslov. "We're not trying to address the question of what this primordial soup of monomers is coming from" or the specific molecules involved. Rather, their model shows a physically plausible path from monomer to self-replicating polymer, inching a step closer to understanding the origins of life.

###

BACKGROUNDER: Waiter, there's an RNA in my Primordial Soup -- Tracing the Origins of Life, from Darwin to Today

Nearly every culture on earth has an origins story, a legend explaining its existence. We humans seem to have a deep need for an explanation of how we ended up here, on this small planet spinning through a vast universe. Scientists, too, have long searched for our origins story, trying to discern how, on a molecular scale, the earth shifted from a mess of inorganic molecules to an ordered system of life. The question is impossible to answer for certain -- there's no fossil record, and no eyewitnesses. But that hasn't stopped scientists from trying.

Over the past 150 years, our shifting understanding of the origins of life has mirrored the emergence and development of the fields of organic chemistry and molecular biology. That is, increased understanding of the role that nucleotides, proteins and genes play in shaping our living world today has also gradually improved our ability to peer into their mysterious past.

When Charles Darwin published his seminal On the Origin of the Species in 1859, he said little about the emergence of life itself, possibly because, at the time, there was no way to test such ideas. His only real remarks on the subject come from a later letter to a friend, in which he suggested a that life emerged out of a "warm little pond" with a rich chemical broth of ions. Nevertheless, Darwin's influence was far-reaching, and his offhand remark formed the basis of many origins of life scenarios in the following years.

In the early 20th century, the idea was popularized and expanded upon by a Russian biochemist named Alexander Oparin. He proposed that the atmosphere on the early earth was reducing, meaning it had an excess of negative charge. This charge imbalance could catalyze existing a prebiotic soup of organic molecules into the earliest forms of life.

Oparin's writing eventually inspired Harold Urey, who began to champion Oparin's proposal. Urey then caught the attention of Stanley Miller, who decided to formally test the idea. Miller took a mixture of what he believed the early earth's oceans may have contained -- a reducing mixture of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water -- and activated it with an electric spark. The jolt of electricity, acting like a strike of lightening, transformed nearly half of the carbon in the methane into organic compounds. One of the compounds he produced was glycine, the simplest amino acid.

The groundbreaking Miller-Urey experiment showed that inorganic matter could give rise to organic structures. And while the idea of a reducing atmosphere gradually fell out of favor, replaced by an environment rich in carbon dioxide, Oparin's basic framework of a primordial soup rich with organic molecules stuck around.

The identification of DNA as the hereditary material common to all life, and the discovery that DNA coded for RNA, which coded for proteins, provided fresh insight into the molecular basis for life. But it also forced origins of life researchers to answer a challenging question: how could this complicated molecular machinery have started? DNA is a complex molecule, requiring a coordinated team of enzymes and proteins to replicate itself. Its spontaneous emergence seemed improbable.

In the 1960s, three scientists -- Leslie Orgel, Francis Crick and Carl Woese -- independently suggested that RNA might be the missing link. Because RNA can self-replicate, it could have acted as both the genetic material and the catalyst for early life on earth. DNA, more stable but more complex, would have emerged later.

Today, it is widely believed (though by no means universally accepted) that at some point in history, an RNA-based world dominated the earth. But how it got there -- and whether there was a simpler system before it -- is still up for debate. Many argue that RNA is too complicated to have been the first self-replicating system on earth, and that something simpler preceded it.

Graham Cairns-Smith, for instance, has argued since the 1960s that the earliest gene-like structures were not based on nucleic acids, but on imperfect crystals that emerged from clay. The defects in the crystals, he believed, stored information that could be replicated and passed from one crystal to another. His idea, while intriguing, is not widely accepted today.

Others, taken more seriously, suspect that RNA may have emerged in concert with peptides -- an RNA-peptide world, in which the two worked together to build up complexity. Biochemical studies are also providing insight into simpler nucleic acid analogs that could have preceded the familiar bases that make up RNA today. It's also possible that the earliest self-replicating systems on earth have left no trace of themselves in our current biochemical systems. We may never know, and yet, the challenge of the search seems to be part of its appeal.

Recent research by Tkachenko and Maslov, published July 28, 2015 in The Journal of Chemical Physics, suggests that self-replicating molecules such as RNA may have arisen through a process called template-assisted ligation. That is, under certain environmental conditions, small polymers could be driven to bond to longer complementary polymer template strands, holding the short strands in close enough proximity to each other that they could fuse into longer strands. Through cyclic changes in environmental conditions that induce complementary strands to come together and then fall apart repeatedly, a self-sustaining collection of hybridized, self-replicating polymers able to encode the blueprints for life could emerge.

###

For More Information: Jason Socrates Bardi jbardi@aip.org? 240-535-4954? @jasonbardi

Article title: Spontaneous emergence of autocatalytic information-coding polymers.

Authors: Alexei Tkachenko and Sergei Maslov

Author affiliations: Brookhaven National Laboratory and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

 3a Our Curiosity. Adam was created out of God's dirt

All Species Evolved From Single Cell, Study Finds

https://publishing.aip.org/publishing/journal-highlights/origins-life-new-model-may-explain-emergence-self-replication-early

By Ker Than, for National Geographic News - PUBLISHED May 14, 2010

All life on Earth evolved from a single-celled organism that lived roughly 3.5 billion years ago, a new study seems to confirm.

The study supports the widely held "universal common ancestor" theory first proposed by Charles Darwin more than 150 years ago.

Using computer models and statistical methods, biochemist Douglas Theobald calculated the odds that all species from the three main groups, or "domains," of life evolved from a common ancestor - versus, say, descending from several different life-forms or arising in their present form, Adam and Eve style.

The domains are bacteria, bacteria-like microbes called Archaea, and eukaryotes, the group that includes plants and other multicellular species, such as humans.

 

 

  4a Our Background Of Experience. Adam's First Rib Invasion

 Adam represents the creation by chemical evolution of the first self replicating cell, Adam still lives as single cell self replicating life on earth that has not died since being created by God's laws of atomic bonding called chemistry. 

Then by the time (around 3 billion years ago) in the process of feeding one of Adam's cells replicating life molecules invaded another of Adam's cells creating Eve. 

Then Eve could self replicate as Adam but could also combine dna with another in sexual reproduction. We call the the second of invading cell male and the second generation of invaded cell female.

 

  5a Prior Relevant Experience. Adam's Second Rib Invasion

 

The next major cell level change was another invasion of a female cell by a primitive cells dna called Mitochondria.

 

Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria


Unlike any other organelle, except for chloroplasts, mitochondria appear to originate only from other mitochondria. They contain their own DNA, which is circular as is true with bacteria, along with their own transcriptional and translational machinery. Mitochondrial ribosomes and transfer RNA molecules are similar to those of bacteria, as are components of their membrane.These and related observations led Dr. Lynn Margulis, in the 1970s, to propose an extracellular origin for mitochondria.

 

1 All Species Evolved From Single Cell, Study Finds

By Ker Than, for National Geographic News - PUBLISHED May 14, 2010 (this article is given in full in 1-0-2-4).

All life on Earth evolved from a single-celled organism that lived roughly 3.5 billion years ago, a new study seems to confirm.

The study supports the widely held "universal common ancestor" theory first proposed by Charles Darwin more than 150 years ago.

Using computer models and statistical methods, biochemist Douglas Theobald calculated the odds that all species from the three main groups, or "domains," of life evolved from a common ancestor - versus, say, descending from several different life-forms or arising in their present form, Adam and Eve style.

The domains are bacteria, bacteria-like microbes called Archaea, and eukaryotes, the group that includes plants and other multicellular species, such as humans.

 

Our Background Of Experience. Adam's First Rib Invasion

 Adam represents the creation by chemical evolution of the first self replicating cell, Adam still lives as single cell self replicating life on earth that has not died since being created by God's laws of atomic bonding called chemistry. 

Then by the time (around 3 billion years ago) in the process of feeding one of Adam's cell's replicating life molecules, invaded another of Adam's cells creating Eve. 

Then Eve could self replicate as Adam but could also combine dna with another in sexual reproduction. We call the the second of invading cell male and the second generation of invaded cell female.

 

Prior Relevant Experience. Adam's Second Rib Invasion

 

The next major cell level change was another invasion of a female cell by a primitive cells dna called Mitochondria.

 

Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria


Unlike any other organelle, except for chloroplasts, mitochondria appear to originate only from other mitochondria. They contain their own DNA, which is circular as is true with bacteria, along with their own transcriptional and translational machinery. Mitochondrial ribosomes and transfer RNA molecules are similar to those of bacteria, as are components of their membrane.These and related observations led Dr. Lynn Margulis, in the 1970s, to propose an extracellular origin for mitochondria.

 

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