1.16 Jihad Against Arabs

0 Content 1 Foundation

Jihad Against Persia 1.18

1.17 Anatolia, Black Sea And Caucasus 24 BC - Present

Contents
                                   Introduction
1.17.0 Anatolia - Overview
1.17.1 Roman Empire 24 BC - 1453 AD
1.17.2 The First Church In The Home Founded By Christ!
1.17.3 The 1 Century Christian Community
           Included Both Coasts Of The Black Sea
1.17.4 Sassanid (Persian) War Against Christians
602 - 628 AD
1.17.5 Jewish revolt against Heraclius
1.17.6
Byzantine Empire 285 - 1453 AD
1.17.7 The Fourth Crusade
1.17.8 Arab Islamic Invasion
1.17.9 Islamic Turkish Invasions
 

Introduction

The truth of grass-roots Christians and their home churches is overlooked in history and replaced by the reestablished priesthoods that not only positioned themselves as authority figures between the believers, their God, Christ's Spirit and The Spirit Of Truth. But they kept the history of sending missionaries 2x2 where ever exploration opened the door. Example 0.

The point that is missed in the written academic histories is that the true Christian religion was and is established to remove the priest from between man and God. The true Church is the faithful and they meet in the homes of the faithful they still go 2x2 witnessing and spreading the news that God is Love.

 

The historic ground for the true church has been farm families where care for children and respect for elders has led to reading the bible and seeking fellowship. This has  continually been degraded in areas of urbanization and affluence. From my home church experience I know of the wealthy often choosing true Christians for servants and child care. Also, International companies elevate the men to positions of trust. The first I had fellowship with after professing my desire for fellowship in Christ was a retired Vispresedent of a major oil company.

Then when I started going to Russia I had fellowship with two other oil executives and an oil company's International Lawyer.

Unfortunately the Book Keeping Policy of transparency caused Russian Oil Wealth Corrupters to corrupt the government to withhold visas to end exposing corruption (which President Putin is trying to deal with).

Here in America an international field engineer I have fellowship with is in charge of a new Japanese auto plant and the list goes on of Jews in South Africa converting because of the living witness of a servant and all the farms being taken from us in Zimbabwe that are now going to rot or the service to the French Rothschilds and the English Royals ect.

The genetic hunter-gatherer legacy of males wanting to ascend to being the dominant male and females manipulating the dominant males as a hedge against her husband. Even though the manifestations of home Christianity continue to be corrupted, the written word and living witnesses maintain, propagate and create home congregations since Jesus opened the door to direct fellowship with God, Christ and the Spirit Of Truth. As Jesus said,

 

Matthew 18:20 KJV

For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

The Roman Catholic Authorities did save the Christian Bible from the Nostics and their false writing (like Jesus making mud birds fly as Mhoammad believed as recorded in the Koran Suras 3:49 , 5:110 Jesus makes mud birds live.

The Dark Ages were the years that the Catholic Authorities prevented the bible from being translated into native languages. Of course it existed in Greek, Latin, Aramaic1., Farsi and others of the time (Arabia, Egypt and Ethiopian).

In the late fourth century, the Huns came from the east and invaded the region controlled by the Goths. Although the Huns successfully subdued many of the Goths, who joined their ranks, a group of Goths led by Fritigern fled across the Danube. They then revolted against the Roman Empire, winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Adrianople. By this time, many of the Goths had converted from paganism to Arian Christianity by the Gothic missionary Wulfila, who devised the Gothic alphabet to translate the Bible. In the late fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries, the Goths separated into two main branches, the Visigoths, who became federates of the Romans, and the Ostrogoths, who joined the Huns.

The Bible was first translated into the Georgian language as early as the 5th century.[1] The Vani Gospels (Vani Four Gospels; Georgian: ვანის ოთხთავი, Vanis otkhtavi) is an illuminated manuscript of the gospels in the Georgian Nuskhuri script dating from the end of the 12th–early 13th centuries. Recently a new translation was completed by the Institute for Bible Translation.

The Slavic alphabet was created2. by Cyril and Methodius3., in Great Moravia, 864–865 AD to publish the bible in the slavic language.4.

Where ever the people read about the nature of the home churches founded by Christ and his Apostles (Sent Ones) they spontaneously build home fellowship!

Paulicians

Paulicians (Armenian: Պաւլիկեաններ, also remembered as Pavlikians or Paulikianoi[1]) were a Christian Adoptionist sect and militarized revolt movement, also accused by medieval sources as being Gnostic and quasi Manichaean Christian. They flourished between 650 and 872 in Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. According to medieval Byzantine sources, the group's name was derived after the 3rd century Bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata.[2][3]

Bogomilism


The development of Bogomillism

Bogomilism was a Gnostic religiopolitical sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest Bogomil during the reign of Tsar Petar I in the 10th century.[1][2][3] It most probably arose in what is today the region of Macedonia[4][5] as a response to the social stratification that occurred as a result of the introduction of feudalism and as a form of political movement and opposition to the Bulgarian state and the church.

The Bogomils called for a return to early Christianity, rejecting the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and their primary political tendencies were resistance to the state and church authorities. This helped the movement spread quickly in the Balkans, gradually expanding throughout the Byzantine Empire and later reaching Kievan Rus', Bosnia, Dalmatia, Rascia, Italy, France.

The Bogomils were dualists in that they believed the world was created not by the Abrahamic God, but by an evil demiurge — the Devil. They did not use the cross nor build churches, preferring to perform rituals outdoors.

 Cossacks

The origins of the first Cossacks are uncertain. The traditional historiography dates the emergence of Cossacks to the 14-15th centuries.

Vasili Glazkov (Wasili Glaskow), History of the Cossacks, p. 3, Robert Speller & Sons, New York, ISBN 0-8315-0035-2

 specifically mentioning 948 as the year when the inhabitants of the Steppe under the leader named Kasak or Kazak routed the Khazars from the area of modern Kuban and organized a state called Kazakia or Cossackia.[2]

Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Turks, Tatars, Russians, Ukrainians and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe that stretches from Asia to southern Europe.[3]

However some turkologists argue that cossacks are descendants of native Kipchak (Russian половцы) people of Ukraine, who lived there long ago before Mongol invasion and were closely related to modern Kazakhs. These people were highly admired for their esquestrian talents by the early Russian military. Many were hired as cavalry by Russian and Ukrainian warlords, much as they hired Black Klobuks as personal guards[citation needed].

It is after 1400 that the Cossacks emerge as an established and identifiable group in historical accounts. Rulers of Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth employed Cossacks as mobile guards against Tatar raids from the south in the territories of the present-day southwestern Russia and southern Ukraine. Those early Cossacks seemed to have included a significant number of Tatar descendants judging from the records of their names. From the mid-15th century, the Cossacks are mostly mentioned with Russian and Ukrainian names.[4]

In all historical records of that period, Cossack society was described as a loose federation of independent communities, often merging into larger units of a military character, entirely separate from, and mostly independent of, other nations (such as Poland, Russia or the Tatars)[citation needed].

In the 16th century, these Cossack societies created two relatively independent territorial organisations:

 

Don Cossacks

 

"The Return of the Cossacks", oil on canvas, 1894, 61 x 120 cm, painted by Józef Brandt.

Their first recorded naval raid into the Black Sea dates to 1538, with an attack on the fortress of Ochakiv. This was followed by more frequent and better-organised raids elsewhere, the freeing of Christian slaves being one of the chief aims, as well as the acquisition of plunder. Their success was such that they attracted the attention of the western European powers, including the Papacy, who made diplomatic overtures in the hope of launching joint ventures against the Turks.

In 1539 Grand Prince Basil The Third asked the Ottoman Sultan to curb the Cossacks and the Sultan replied: "The Cossacks do not swear allegiance to me, and they live as they themselves please." In 1549 the infamous Tsar of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, replied to a request of the Turkish Sultan to stop the aggressive actions of the Don Cossacks, stating, "The Cossacks of the Don are not my subjects, and they go to war or live in peace without my knowledge." Similar exchanges passed between Russia, Ottomans and the Commonwealth, each of which often tried to use the Cossacks' warmongering for its own purposes. The Cossacks for their part were happy to plunder everybody more or less equally. In the 16th-17th century the Zaporoijan Cossacks were subjects of first the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and after the Union of Lublin of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

 

Molokans

Molokans (Russian: молокане) are sectarian Christians who evolved from "Spiritual Christian" Russian peasants that refused to obey the Russian Orthodox Church. Molokan practice was first sanctioned by the Nestorian Church in the 11th century in order to accommodate the conversion of some 200,000 Kerait Tatars to Nestorian Christianity.[1] The epinomical practice in question being drinking milk on most of the approximately 200 fasting days, especially the Great Fast (Lent)— an activity which was prohibited by all other ecclesiastical authorities of the time. In contrast, they called themselves "true Spiritual Christians", rather than "milk-drinkers", because they could not accept the Russian Orthodox Church, nor the Protestant sects or the Catholic Church. They may have been influenced by an earlier religious sect of Armenian "Paulicians", who became known as the "Bogomils" of Thrace, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Serbia.

In a sense Molokans are Protestants for rejecting Orthodoxy, and like Presbyterians in that they have a council of dominant elders. Though Molokans are somewhat similar to the European Quakers and Mennonites — for their pacifism, communal organization, spiritual meetings, and sub-groupings — they are ethnically much closer to Doukhobors and Sabbatarians (Subbotniki) because they evolved from the same Russian Spiritual Christian movement of Khristovers and Ikonobors (icon-wrestlers), and migrated together with some intermarriage.

The Doukhobors

The Doukhobors or Dukhobors (Russian: Духоборы, Dukhobory, earlier Dukhobortsy, Russian: Духоборцы; literally "Spirit-Wrestlers") are a religious group of Russian origin.

The Doukhobors were one of the sects—later defined as a religious philosophy, ethnic group, social movement, or simply a "way of life"—known generically as Spiritual Christianity. The origin of the Doukhobors is uncertain. The first clear record of their existence and the first use of the names related to "Doukhobors" are from the 18th century. However, some scholars believe that the sect had its origins in the 17th or even the 16th century.[1][2] They rejected secular government, the Russian Orthodox priests, icons, all church ritual, the Bible as the supreme source of divine revelation, and the divinity of Jesus.[citation needed] Their pacifist beliefs and desire to avoid government interference in their life led to an exodus of the majority of the group from the Russian Empire to Canada at the close of the 19th century.

House church, or "home church", or in Mainland China 家庭教会 (literally "Family Church") is used to describe an independent assembly of Christians who gather in a home. Sometimes this occurs because the group is small, and a home is the most appropriate place to gather, as in the beginning phase of the British New Church Movement. Sometimes it is because the group is a member of an underground Christian movement, which is otherwise banned from meeting, as in China. Some recent Christian writers have supported the view that the Christian Church should meet in houses, and have based the operation of their communities around multiple small home meetings. They claim that this approach is preferable to public meetings in dedicated buildings because it is a more effective way of building community and it helps the group to engage in outreach more naturally. Some believe small churches were a deliberate apostolic pattern in the first century and intended by Christ.[1] Cell churches are usually associated with larger churches: they also meet in homes and share some characteristics of house churches. They are not normally considered to be a house church, as they are not self-governing.

Some within the house church movement (associated with Wolfgang Simson, Frank Viola and others) consider the term "house church" to be a misnomer, asserting that the main issue for Christians who practice their faith in this manner is not the house but the type of meeting that takes place. Other titles which may be used to describe this movement are "simple church" "relational church," "primitive church," "body life," "organic church," or "biblical church." However all of the practices implied by these terms are shared with many other churches outside the movement.

House Church Movement

Today, the spread of house churches is largely found in countries such as China, Vietnam, India, Cuba, Brazil and African nations,[4] but they are also seen in small, but growing, numbers in the Philippines, Europe, and North America.[4] A major, modern day example of the house church movement supported by organizations such as Christianity Today, Fuller Theological Seminary, and the Christian Research Institute is the group known as "the local churches" which began in China with Watchman Nee and spread all over the world through Nee's co-worker, Witness Lee. The local churches have grown to over hundreds of thousands meeting together according to the New Testament pattern of Christian meeting.[5][6][7]

What new discoverers and observers of the Biblical church expressed in independent home meeting and 2x2 (often married couples) is that It has never died out even though some think they are the source and reestablish a priesthood

0.


1.

Aramaic Language: The Language of Christ

http://www.mountlebanon.org/aramaiclanguage.html

The Aramaic language is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. Originally the language of the Aramaeans (Aram, which is the Hebrew word for ancient Syria), it was used, in many dialectical forms, in Mesopotamia and Syria before 1000 B.C., and later became the lingua franca of the Middle East. Aramaic survived the fall of Nineveh (612 B.C.) and Babylon (539 B.C.) and remained the official language of the Persian Empire (539-337 B.C.). Ancient inscriptions in Aramaic have been found over a vast area extending from Egypt to China. Before the Christian era, Aramaic had become the language of the Jews in Palestine. Jesus preached in Aramaic, and parts of the Old Testament and much of the rabbinical literature were written in that language. Christian Aramaic, usually called Syriac, also developed an extensive literature, especially from the 4th to 7th centuries. The influence and diffusion of Aramaic began to decline in favor of Arabic at the time of the Arab conquest in the 7th century AD . Aramaic survives today in Eastern and Western dialects, mostly as the language of Christians living in a few scattered communities in Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran.

2. The oldest translation, commonly called the Old Church Slavonic, is closely connected with the activity of the two apostles to the Slavs, Cyril and Methodius, in Great Moravia, 864–865. The oldest manuscripts are written either in the so-called Cyrillic or the Glagolitic character. The former is the Greek majuscule writing of the 9th century with the addition of new characters for Slavic sounds which are not found in the Greek of that time; the latter was a style writing that was completely independent of any other writing system, which ceased to be used as late as the 20th century.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible_translations_into_Church_Slavonic

3. Saints Cyril and Methodius (Greek: Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος, Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи[more]) were Byzantine Greek brothers born in Thessalonica in the 9th century who became Christian missionaries among the Slavic peoples of the Great Moravia and Pannonia.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title "Apostles to the Slavs". They are credited with devising the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet used to transcribe Old Church Slavonic.[11] After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Orthodox Church as saints with the title of "equal-to-apostles". In 1880, Pope Leo XIII introduced their feast into the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared them co-patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia.[12]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saints_Cyril_and_Methodius

4.

Old Church Slavonic and Church Slavonic

The oldest translation, commonly called the Old Church Slavonic, is closely connected with the activity of the two apostles to the Slavs, Cyril and Methodius, in Great Moravia, 864–865. The oldest manuscripts are written either in the so-called Cyrillic or the Glagolitic character. The former is the Greek majuscule writing of the 9th century with the addition of new characters for Slavic sounds which are not found in the Greek of that time; the latter was a style writing that was completely independent of any other writing system, which ceased to be used as late as the 20th century.

The oldest manuscripts are written in the Glagolitic, which is older than the Cyrillic. The oldest manuscripts extant belong to the 10th or 11th century, and the first complete collection of Biblical books in the Church Slavonic language originated in Russia in the last decade of the 15th century. It was completed in 1499 under the auspices of Archbishop Gennady of Novgorod (1484–1504), and the Old Testament was translated partly from the Vulgate, and partly from the Septuagint. The New Testament is based upon the old Church Slavonic translation. That Bible, called the Gennady's Bible (Russian: Геннадиевская Библия) is now housed in the State History Museum on Red Square.

5.

Early history

The origins of the first Cossacks are uncertain. The traditional historiography dates the emergence of Cossacks to the 14-15th centuries. Non-mainstream theories have ascribed their earlier existence to as early as the tenth century[1] specifically mentioning 948 as the year when the inhabitants of the Steppe under the leader named Kasak or Kazak routed the Khazars from the area of modern Kuban and organized a state called Kazakia or Cossackia.[2]

Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Turks, Tatars, Russians, Ukrainians and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe that stretches from Asia to southern Europe.[3]

However some turkologists argue that cossacks are descendants of native Kipchak (Russian половцы) people of Ukraine, who lived there long ago before Mongol invasion and were closely related to modern Kazakhs. These people were highly admired for their esquestrian talents by the early Russian military. Many were hired as cavalry by Russian and Ukrainian warlords, much as they hired Black Klobuks as personal guards[citation needed].

It is after 1400 that the Cossacks emerge as an established and identifiable group in historical accounts. Rulers of Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth employed Cossacks as mobile guards against Tatar raids from the south in the territories of the present-day southwestern Russia and southern Ukraine. Those early Cossacks seemed to have included a significant number of Tatar descendants judging from the records of their names. From the mid-15th century, the Cossacks are mostly mentioned with Russian and Ukrainian names.[4]

In all historical records of that period, Cossack society was described as a loose federation of independent communities, often merging into larger units of a military character, entirely separate from, and mostly independent of, other nations (such as Poland, Russia or the Tatars)[citation needed].

In the 16th century, these Cossack societies created two relatively independent territorial organisations:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Cossacks

 

6.

Cossacks (Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky; Russian: казаки, kazaki), are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in Ukraine and Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper[1] and Don basins, and played an important role in the historical development of both Ukraine and Russia.

The origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, traditional historiography dates the emergence of Cossacks to the 14th to 15th centuries when two related groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dniper and the Don Host. The Zaporozhian Sich, initially a vassal of Poland-Lithuania, the increasing social and religious pressure from the Commonwealth caused them to proclaim an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the mid-17th century. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Ukrainian Cossack state under Russian rule.[2]

The Don Cossack Host, which had been established by the 16th century,[3] allied itself with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia (see Yermak Timofeyevich), the Yaik and the Terek Rivers. By the 18th century, Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire served as buffer zones on her borders. However, the expansionist ambitions of the empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension with their traditional freedom, democratic self-rule, and independence. As a result, Cossacks, such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin and Yemelyan Pugachev, have lead major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy. In extreme cases, the Empire responded by dissolving whole Hosts, as was the fate of the Yaik Host and Zaporozhian Sich in 1775.

By the end of the 18th century, Cossack nations were transformed into a special military estate (Sosloviye). Because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia’s wars of the 18th - 20th centuries such as the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars, and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime employed them extensively to perform police service and suppress the revolutionary movement, especially in 1905–7.[4] They also served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders (as was the case in the Caucasus War). In return, they enjoyed vast political and social autonomy. All of the above caused them to be a part of a stereotypical portrayal of the 19th century Russian Empire both abroad and domestically.

During the Russian Civil War, Don and Kuban Cossacks have been the first nations to declare open war against the Bolsheviks. By 1918, Cossacks declared the complete independence of their nations and formed the independent states, the Ukrainian State, the Don Republic, and the Kuban People's Republic. The Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, and Cossack republics became centers for the Anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the man-made famine of 1932-33 (Holodomor). After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks have made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in Post-Soviet conflicts and Yugoslav wars. In Russia's 2010 Population Census, Cossacks have been recognized as an ethnicity.[5] There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Poland and the USA.[6][7][8]

7.

Historical records

Cossack society was ethnically diverse and some Cossacks may have had their origins as far away as Scotland. Maxym Kryvonis was a mercenary soldier from Scotland. Ivan Pidkova was from Moldavia. Jews also served in the ranks of the Cossacks, although the mechanism of their entry into the Cossack ranks is unclear. The Cossack regiments in Ukraine served administrative purposes, besides military, and had constant demand for able administrators, educated diplomats and scribes. Jews could fulfill those tasks because of their level of literacy and command of several languages.[2] Although the Cossacks were not known for religiosity before the 17th century it is presumed that conversion was a requirement for promotion in the Cossack ranks by early 17th century. In 1681 Ahmad Kalga, chief councilor of the Khan of Crimea, complained to the Polish ambassador, Piasaczinski, that the Cossacks of the Lower Dnieper had attacked Crimea. Piasaczinski replied that the Cossacks were not subjects of the king of Poland, and that he therefore could not be held responsible for the "acts of uncontrollable rovers of the desert that were apostates from all faiths, Poles, Muscovites, Wallachians, Turks, Tatars, Jews, etc., among them".[3]

The responsa of Joel Särkes discusses "Berakha the Hero", who fought in the ranks of Severyn Nalyvaiko's Cossacks and fell in battle against the Muscovites. The deposition of Berakha's fellow-cossack "Joseph son of Moses" in the rabbinical court-case of Berakha's widow's permission to remarry states that there were at least 11 Jews in the cossack ranks of the Nalyvaiko army in the battle in whick Berakha was killed.[4] In 1637 Ilyash (Elijah) Karaimovich was one of the officers of the registered Cossacks, and became their "starosta" (elder) after the execution of Pavlyuk. Karaimovich is presumed to be born a Karaim (a Turkic ethnic group adherent to Karaite Judaism.)[5]

In 1594 a Jew known only by his first name Moses served as a deputy to Stanislav Khlopitsky, the Cossack emissary to the court of Emperor Rudolph II. Both Khlopitsky and Moses took oath on the Cossack Host's behalf in their treaty with the Emperor.[6] Historian of the Cossacks Yuri Mytsyk describes a case in which, in 1602 a Jew from the town of Berestye converted to Christianity and joined Zaporozhian Host. His children and property were seized by the qahal, and he had to apply to king Sigismund III for assistance in restitution of his children and property. His quest was successful, and his children joined him.[6]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Cossacks

 

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