1-8 Personal |
Content 1 |
Working
Introduction: see 0a
0 Curiosity 1 Purpose 2 Plan 3 Materials 4 Apparatus Diagram 5 Procedure 6 Observations 7 Analysis 8 Conclusions 9 Discussion |
The purpose is to identify the rational for organization on the background experience. It turns out that with evolution the time line and the level of
complexity go nearly in parallel.
level of complexity |
the time line |
1-0 Introduction | |
1-1 Cosmological | - to + |
1-2 Geophysical | 4.54 × 10^{9} years ± 1%.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} to ? |
1-3 Biological | 3.5 × 10^{9} years. ^{[4][5]} to ? |
1-4-1 Societal - archaic Homo sapiens | 200,000 years ago.^{[}^{6}^{]} |
1-4-2 Societal - Pictorial/Verbal Labeling | 32,000 years ago.^{[7]} |
1-4-3 Societal - History Stories (Neolithic Age) | 9500 BCE |
1-5 Cultural - | |
1-6 Islamic Alarms | |
1-7 Personal | |
1-8 Some Problems And Solutions | |
1-9 Layout | |
[1] "Age of the Earth". U.S. Geological Survey. 1997. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/geotime/age.html. Retrieved 2006-01-10. [2] Dalrymple, G. Brent (2001). "The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved". Special Publications, Geological Society of London 190: 205–221. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.190.01.14. [3] Manhesa, Gérard; Allègrea, Claude J.; Dupréa, Bernard; and Hamelin, Bruno (1980). "Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle characteristics". Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Elsevier B.V. 47: 370–382. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(80)90024-2. [4] Wilde SA, Valley JW, Peck WH, Graham CM (January 2001). "Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago". Nature 409 (6817): 175–8. doi:10.1038/35051550. PMID 11196637. [5] Schopf JW, Kudryavtsev AB, Agresti DG, Wdowiak TJ, Czaja AD (March 2002). "Laser--Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils". Nature 416 (6876): 73–6. doi:10.1038/416073a. PMID 11882894 [6]Mitochondrial DNA and fossil evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago. => Schopf JW, Kudryavtsev AB, Agresti DG, Wdowiak TJ, Czaja AD (March 2002). "Laser--Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils". Nature 416 (6876): 73–6. doi:10.1038/416073a. PMID 11882894. [7] The earliest known cave paintings date to Aurignacian, some 32,000 years ago. - Clottes (2003b), p. 214 |
When I taught Physics by laboratory investigation |
By Hands-On-Investigation And Report Writing
Label |
Characterization |
Sophistication |
Title | Descriptive | Exposure |
Purpose | (why bother) | Exposure |
Background | (prior relevant experience) | Exposure, qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Material Needed | (to make observation) | Exposure |
Apparatus Diagram | (how the materials were assembled for the investigation) | Exposure |
Procedure (observations) | (for using the apparatus to make observations) | Exposure, qualitative |
Observations | (sometimes a series of observations requiring a table) | Exposure, qualitative, quantitative |
Theory | (to be used in making an analysis of the observations) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Procedure (analysis) | (how to use the observations and theory to reach conclusions | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Analysis | (analyze the observations with the stated theory this may involve calculations, analysis tables and graphs) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Conclusions (analysis) |
(this may be a discovery about the reality being investigated or the discovery of some aspect of the theory or a discovery about any aspect of the investigation) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Discussion (analysis) |
||
Considering The Results From A Set Of Investigations |
||
Using the results from set of prior investigations | (eg. locating a point r(x,y,z), a moving point v(x,y,z), an accelerating point a(x,y,z). | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Synthesis | (use the results of lower levels to build the nest level of structure leading to a complete overview of the motivating question) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Conclusions | r(x,y,z)=r_{0}(x,y,z)+v_{0}(x,y,z)t+1/2a_{0}(x,y,z)t^{2} | |
Discussion (Synthesis) |
(discuss any limits to the conclusions, recommend improvement, recommend a new investigation to extend or clarify the conclusions) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Overview From Sets Of Investigations |
||
Thesis | (articulation of the complete overview answer to the motivating question) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
Discussion (thesis) |
1-3-1 Structure | 1 Introduction - 1-3 The Way |
Levels 1-3-3 |
Label |
Characterization |
Sophistication |
Applied Here |
Title | Descriptive | Exposure | Cover |
Purpose | (why bother) | Exposure | |
Background | (prior relevant experience) | Exposure, qualitative, quantitative, abstract | Background |
Exposure, qualitative | Regression | ||
Material Needed | (to make observation) | Exposure | Analysis |
Apparatus Diagram | (how the materials were assembled for the investigation) | Exposure | |
Procedure (observations) | (for using the apparatus to make observations) | Exposure, qualitative | |
Observations | (sometimes a series of observations requiring a table) | Exposure, qualitative, quantitative | |
Theory | (to be used in making an analysis of the observations) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Procedure (analysis) | (how to use the observations and theory to reach conclusions | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Analysis | (analyze the observations with the stated theory this may involve calculations, analysis tables and graphs) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Conclusions (analysis) |
(this may be a discovery about the reality being investigated or the discovery of some aspect of the theory or a discovery about any aspect of the investigation) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Discussion (analysis) |
(discuss any limits to the conclusions, recommend improvement, recommend a new investigation to extend or clarify the conclusions) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Considering The Results From A Set Of Investigations |
|||
Using the results from set of prior investigations | (eg. locating a point r(x,y,z), a moving point v(x,y,z), an accelerating point a(x,y,z). | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | Synthesis |
Synthesis | (use the results of lower levels to build the nest level of structure leading to a complete overview of the motivating question) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Conclusions | r(x,y,z)=r_{0}(x,y,z)+v_{0}(x,y,z)t+1/2a_{0}(x,y,z)t^{2} | abstract | |
Discussion (Synthesis) |
(discuss any limits to the conclusions, recommend improvement, recommend a new investigation to extend or clarify the conclusions) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | |
Overview From Sets Of Investigations |
|||
Thesis | (articulation of the complete overview answer to the motivating question) | Qualitative, quantitative, abstract | Thesis |
Discussion (thesis) |
(discuss any limits to the conclusions, recommend improvement, recommend a new investigation to extend or clarify the conclusions) |
Qualitative, quantitative, abstract |
1-3-2 Structure | 1 Introduction - 1-3 The Way |
The Investigations could be characterized as having increasing levels of sophistication.
Exposure Level
(Observation - experiencing.
Recording what was experienced.)
Qualitative Level
(describing observations and cause-effect relationships)
Quantitative Level
(Using numerical observations to make graphs and obtain equations that describe cause-effect relationships)
Abstract Level
(making models of that explain cause-effect relationships and predict behavior in reality)